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Nutrition - Intro

Review digestion of Carbohydrates -Salivary amylase produced in the mouth initiates the breakdown of polysaccharides -Pancreatic amylase continues digestion in the proximal small intestine
Review absorption of carbohydrates -Brush border disaccharidases
Review metabolism of carbohydrates -Glucose, Galactose, & Fructose are ultimately transported to the liver where they undergo further metabolism -Carbs=4 kcal/gram
Review digestion of proteins -Protein digestion starts in the stomach -Proteolytic enzymes start to breakdown proteins in the stomach -Digestion continues in the duodenum
Review absorption & metabolism of proteins -Amino acids are absorbed through multiple mechanisms and ultimately transported to the liver -Proteins=4 kcal/gram
Review digestion, absorption, and metabolism of lipids -Lipid digestions begins in the mouth with lingual lipase and continues in the stomach with the action of gastric lipase -The bulk of lipid digestion occurs in the small intestines
Review absorption and metabolism of lipids -Once assembles into the chylomicrons, they are transported by the lymphatic vessels to the thoracic duct and subsequently transported into the bloodstream -Lipids then enter the liver where they are repackaged into VLDLs -Fats=9 kcal/gram
Review absorption and metabolism of lipids (continued) -Fats produce the largest amount of energy per gram of any other macronutrients
Define dietary reference intake (DRIs) is the current standard for measuring nutritional adequacy and is composed of four nutritional values
Define Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) the average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (98%) of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.
Define Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and/or gender group.
Define Adequate Intake (AI) the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy peopled. AI is used when RDA cannot be determined
Define Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) the highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL the potential risk of adverse effects may increase
Explain how dietary reference intakes are calculated and how they can be used to access a patients health -Are calculated based on: EAR, RDA, AI, UL -Determines whether the patient needs to increase/decrease/maintain their dieting in order to obtain the correct amount of nutrients
Define and explain the difference between energy density and nutrient density -Energy density is a measure of the energy (kcal) a type of food provides compared to the amount of food consumed (grams) -Nutrient Density is the amount of a nutrient compared to the amount of energy obtained from that nutrient
List the nutrients that yield energy and how much energy they yield per gram Carbohydrates: 4 kcal/g Protein: 4 kcal/g Fats: 9 kcal/g
Describe how alcohol resembles nutrients, but is not considered a nutirent Alcohol contributes 7 kcal/g but is not considered a nutrient because it interferes with the body's growth, maintenance, and repair
Define the current energy recommendations of all the macronutrients Carbohydrates: 45%-65% Fat: 20%-35% (saturated fat should be < than 10%) Protein: 10-35% (0.8 g/kg/day)
Compare the portions and serving size of today vs years ago and discuss how they might have affected that status quo of the United States obesity problem While the serving size remains pretty much the same, the portion size has increased thus increasing the amount of calories obtained by the average individual
Created by: jgrayson



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