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Hum 101 final pt 2

chapter 11

QuestionAnswer
altruism the quality of acting out of concern for the welfare of others rather than one's own
capitalism economic system based on Adam Smith's philosophy that if people are allowed to make as much money as they can, others will profit also
categories according to Immanuel Kant, mental "compartments" that we are born with, which allows us to interpret data from the senses; an inborn sense of reason allows us to understand spatial relationships ("nextness") as well as moral and immoral actions
englightened self-interest condition in which wise rulers impose, for unselfish reasons, their own political philosophy in order to have an effective gov't that provides for people better than those people could provide for themselves
laissez-faire French phrase meaing "allow to do"; an economic policy of allowing businesses the freedom to operate with little or not gov't control
Machiavellian pertains to the manipulation of others thru duplicity; derived from Machiavelli's theory of gov't that advocates a powerful leader who exerts power over others
moral an adjective indicating a choice between significant options, based on principles derived from reason, family teachings, education, religion or law
moral absolution belief that a given set of moral standards, derived from reason, religion, or culture, is universally binding
moral imperative in Kantian philosophy, the inborn capacity to understand what is right when we are faced with moral decisions; one of the Kantian categories or "mental compartments"
moral mathematics a scientific system of making choices between options based on projected quantifiable positive or negative effects
moral relativism the belief that moral standards are not universal but, rather, vary depending on time, culture, and situation
moral system a network of beliefs that can form the basis on which a moral choice is made; e.g. religious laws or Socratic reasoning
morality the study of moral systems by which significant choices are made; in popular usage, the user's sense of right conduct, so that a given person is said to bee or not be "moral"
utilitarianism belief founded on Bentham's moral mathematics that b/c moral choices have a sci. base, they shouldn't be made for individuals by rulers supporting any particular moral system but the result of logical analysis of the # of people who could benefit
Created by: courtney_b90
 

 



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