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Hum 101 final pt 1

chpts 10

agnostic one who believes that we can't know for sure whether God exists
athiest one who believes that God can't logically exist
atman In hinduism, the individual soul that is part of a universal soul
Brahma in Hinduism, a godlike personification of the creative principle of the universe
brahman in Hinduism, the name given to the spiritual force that governs the universe; the universal soul
buddha Sanskrit term for "the awakened one"; used in Hindu prophesies as a reference to a special being who comes along one in 25000 years and attains enlightenment without having to be reborn; the Buddha referse to Siddhartha Gautama-taught anyone can do this
Buddhism lifestyle, meditation practice, and religion based on the teachings of the Buddha
caste in India, a social class; in Hindu belief, determined by the moral quality of your previous life
creatio ex nihilio Latin phrase meaning "creation out of nothing"; used in Judaism, Chritianity, and Islam to describe the universe that God made
dharma in Hinduism, the moral structure underlying existence; in Buddhism, the quivalent of brahman, the universal soul; Chinese equivalent, Tao
dialectic the philosophical method used by Socrates, involving question and answer
enlightenment in Buddhism, the state achieved by the Buddha, total detachment, devoid of ego, in which one sees things as they really are
heresy a belief held or statement made that challenged medieval Christian teachings
Hinduism generic term for religion of India dating back to c. 1500 BC based on honoring numerous deities and a belief in reincarnation
Inquisition high Christian court assembled beginning in the 13th century for the triat and sentencing of those convicted of heresy
karma in Hinduism, a moral summoning up of one's deeds that determines where one will be in the next lifetime
materialism a philosophy that says only matter is real
meditation in Buddhism, the practice of sitting until one achieves a state of detachment from ego
moksha in Hinduism, Sanskrit term given to the state of eternal bliss achieved after having successfully gone through many rebirths
monotheism religion based on one supreme god
nirvana in Buddhism, a state of bliss attainable to those who devote their lives to meditation and a transcendence of ego; adopted into English to mean a totally stress-free condition
polytheism religion based on more than one god
pragmatism philosophy developed in America which holds that the truth of an idea is measurable by experiment and practical outcomes
predestination a belief stated by Augustine that one's entire life, including moral and immoral choices, is already determined before birth; in Calvinism, the belief that one is born either for salvation or damnation
Shiva in Hinduism, a personification of the principle of change; of destroying what Brahma has created in order to make way for the new; the 2nd god in the Hindu trinity
Talmud a collection of writings that interpret the Torah and provide clarification of biblical laws
Tao in Taoism, the moral order that rules the universe
Thomism name given to the logical system developed by Aquinas, strongly influenced by Aristotle, to prove the existence of God
Torah the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible - Gen, Ex, Lev, Num, Deut; attributed to Moses
Unmoved Mover what Aristotle called the force that always existed and was responsible for setting the entire universe in motion but was not in itself set in motion by anything preceding it
Vishnu in Hinduism, the principle that creates a balance b/t the need for permanence and the need for change
wu wei phrase used in Taoism that translates as "to do w/o doing"' means that people who live their lives in tune with the moral order of the universe will always do the right thing
yang in Taoism, the active component of existence, symbolized in art as the white crescent of a circle, which also contains a small black circle; the yang is balanced by and works w/ the yin
yin in Taoism, the passive component of existence, symbolized in art as the black crescent of a circle, which also contains a small white circle; the yang is balanced by and works w/ the yang
Zen austere and monastic form of Buddhism, centering on the highly disciplined practice of meditating for very long periods of time; from the Chinese ch'an, meaning "mediation"
Created by: courtney_b90