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EK Bio 8

muscle, bone, and skin

three types of muscle tissue skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
four functions of muscle body movement, stabilization of body position, movement of substances through the body, generating heat to maintain body temperature
characteristics of skeletal muscle voluntary (consciously controlled), connects one bone to another, striated (composed of sarcomeres); multinucleate; don't generally undergo mitosis to create new muscle cells but grows by hypertrophy
characteristics of heart muscle involuntary, striated, contains only 1 nucleus, and separated from its neighboring cells with intercalated disc; grows by hypertrophy
sarcomere smallest functional unit of skeletal muscle, composed of many strands of thick and thin filaments, laid side by side to form myofibril
sarcoplasmic reticulum specialized ER of the muscle cell that surrounds each myofibril; its lumen is filled with calcium ions
myosin protein that makes up the thick filament
actin globular protein that makes up the thin filament
1st stage of skeletal muscle contraction tropomyosin covers an active site on acti preventing myosin from binding (it remains in cocked high energy position with phosphate and ADP group attached)
2nd stage of skeletal muscle contraction in presence of Ca2+, troponin pulls tropomyosin back exposing the active site so myosin head can bind to actin
3rd stage of skeletal muscle contraction myosin head expels phosphate and ADP and bends into low energy position while dragging actin along with it (power stroke) --> SARCOMERE SHORTENS -- MUSCLE CONTRACTION
4th stage of skeletal muscle contraction ATP attaches to myosin head so myosin releases from active site (which is immediately covered by tropomyosin)
5th stage of skeletal muscle contraction ATP splits into inorganic phosphate and ADP causing myosin head to cock into high energy position
muscle contraction begins with ____ action potential when neuron releases acetylcholine into synaptic cleft thereby activating ion channel in sarcolemna
t-tubules small tunnels in muscle membrane that allow uniform contraction of muscle by allowing action potential to spread thru the muscle cell more rapidly
what happens to calcium at the end of 5 stage muscle contraction cycle? actively pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
motor unit neuron and the muscle fibers that innervate it; independent of each other; usually smaller ones are recruited first, then larger; intricate movements have smaller motor units and those requiring greater force have large motor units
myoglobin oxygen storing protein similar to hemoglobin but only has 1 protein subunit, found in type I or slow-twitch muscle fibers, make muscles have redder color
intercalated disc contain gap junctions which allow action potential to spread from 1 cardiac cell to the next via electrical synapse
hypertrophy increase in muscle cell diameter and change in muscle conformation
what is special about the action potential of cardiac muscle? they exhibit plateau after depolarization (plateau from slow voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that allow Ca to enter and hold the inside of the membrane at (+) potential distance) which will lengthen the time of contraction
characteristics of smooth muscle involuntary and innervated by autonomic nervous system, contain thick and thin filaments (not organized into sarcomeres), contain intermediate filaments attached to dense bodies
two types of smooth muscle single unit and multi-unit
single unit smooth muscle aka visceral, most common smooth muscle type, connected by gap junctions spreading the AP from single neuron thru a large group of cells so they act as a single unit, found in small arteries and veins, stomach, intestines, uterus and urinary bladder
multi-unit smooth muscle attached directly to a neuron, a group of multiunit smooth muscle cells can contract independently, found in large arteries, bronchioles, pili muscles attached to hair follicles and the iris
what can cause smooth muscle to contract? neural stimulus, hormones, changes in pH, O2, CO2, temperature, and ion concentrations
bone living tissue which supports soft tissue, protects inner organs, assists in body movement, mineral storage, blood cell production, and energy storage (in the form of adipose)
osteoprogenitor differentiate into osteoblasts
osteoblast secrete collagen and organic cmpds upon which bone is formed, incapable of mitosis; release matrix materials to surround themselves and will differentiate into osteocytes
osteocytes incapable of mitosis, exchange nutrients and waste materials with the blood
osteoclast resorbs bone, releasing minerals back into the blood
typical long bone epiphysis - metaphysis - diaphysis - metaphysis - epiphysis
spongy bone contain red bone marrow, the site of hemopoiesis
compact bone surrounds medullary cavity which holds the yellow bone marrow; highly organized; contains haversion system (osteons)
yellow bone marrow storage of fat cells (adipose)
Haversion canals tunnels in compact burrowed by osteoclasts then the osteoblasts lay down new matrix to form concentric rings (lamellae); contain blood and lymph vessels
canaliculi how trapped osteocytes between lamallae exchange nutrients
volkmann's canals crossing canals that connect the blood and lymph vessels of the Haversion canals
Ca2+ is stored in the body mostly in... the bone matrix as hydroxyapatite
hydroxypatite calcium phosphate hydroxyl containing compound that lies alongside collagen fibers to give bone greater compressive strength than the best reinforced concrete
what are the four types of bone? long, short, flat, or irregular
cartilage flexible resilient connective tissue composed primarily of collagen and has great tensile strength, contains no blood vessels, types include: hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic
three types of joints are.. fibrous (ex skull), cartilagenous (ex: btw ribs), and synovial (wide range of movement)
7 functions of skin 1. thermoregulation 2. protection 3. environmental sensory input 4. excretion 5. immunity 6. blood reservoir 7. vitamin D synthesis
epidermis avascular epithelial tissue; consists of keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans cells, and merkel cells; have 5 layers w/ keritnocytes pushed to top
dermis connective tissue derived from mesodermal cells; embedded by blood vessels, nerves, glands, and hair follicles; contains collagen and elastic fibers to provide strength, extensibility, and elasticity
subcutaneous layer of skin under the dermis that is an important heat insulator (fat maintains normal core body temp while skin approaches temp of environment)
Created by: miniangel918
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