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EK Chem 6

Acids and bases

Arrhenius acid anything that produces hydrogen ions in aqueous soln
Arrhenius base anything that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous soln
Bronsted and Lowry acids anything that donates a proton
Bronsted and Lowry base anything that accepts a proton
Lewis acid anything that accepts a pair of e's
Lewis base anything that donates a pair of e's
the stronger the acid, the _____ the conjugate base weaker
the stronger the base, the _____ the conjugate acid stronger
amphoteric a substance that can act as either an acid or base
strong acids HI, HBr, HCl, HNO3, HClO4, HClO3, H2SO4
strong bases NaOH, KOH, NH2-, H-, Ca(OH)2, Na2O, CaO
polyprotic acid acids that can donate more than 1 proton
diprotic acid acids that can donate 2 protons, the second proton is usually so weak and often negligible
acid dissociation____ with acid concentration, but acid strength ____ with an acid concentration decreases, increases
3 factors determining whether H containing molecule will release its H and act as an acid (1) strength of bond holding H (2) polarity of the bond (3) stability of the conjugate base
___ conjugate base stability will increase acidity increasing
___ polarity will increase acidity decreasing
___ bond strength will increase acidity decreasing
in a series of oxyacids, more oxygens means a __ acid stronger (hypochlorous acid < chlorous acid < chloric acid < perchloric acid)
hydride cmpd with only 2 elements and 1 being hydrogen; can be acidic, basic, or neutral (where acidity increases down and to the right of the periodic table)
metal hydrides are ____ basic or neutral
nonmetal hydrides are ___ neutral or acidic
acidity of nonmetal hydrides tends to ___ going down the table increase (H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te
autoionization of water H2O + H2O --> H3O+ + OH-, equilibrium constant Kw
Kw [H+][OH-] = Ka*Kb = 10^-14
pKw =pH + pOH = 14
acid dissociation constant Ka, equilibrium constant for acid dissociating in water, = [H+][A-]/[HA]
Kb equilibrium constant for the reaction of the conjugate base with water, =[OH-][HA]/[A-]
salts ionic cmpd's that dissociate in water and often create acidic or basic conditions; pH of such son can be predicted qualitatively by comparing conjugates of the respective ions
titration drop-by-drop mixing of an acid and a base
equivalence point for a monoprotic acid, is the point in the titration when there are equal equivalents of acid and base in solution
equivalence point for equally strong acid-base titrations pH= 7
half equivalence point point where we could add the largest mat of acid or base w/ the least amt of change in pH (most well buffered); where there is 50% A- and 50%HA; point where half of the acid has been neutralized by the base
Henderson-Hasselbach eqn pH = pKa + log([A-]/HA]); when at the half equivalence point, the pH = pKa
indicator usually a weak acid whose conjugate base is a different color
endpoint of indicator point where the indicator changes color, but it is not the same as the equivalence point
Created by: miniangel918