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EK Chem 6

Acids and bases

QuestionAnswer
Arrhenius acid anything that produces hydrogen ions in aqueous soln
Arrhenius base anything that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous soln
Bronsted and Lowry acids anything that donates a proton
Bronsted and Lowry base anything that accepts a proton
Lewis acid anything that accepts a pair of e's
Lewis base anything that donates a pair of e's
the stronger the acid, the _____ the conjugate base weaker
the stronger the base, the _____ the conjugate acid stronger
amphoteric a substance that can act as either an acid or base
strong acids HI, HBr, HCl, HNO3, HClO4, HClO3, H2SO4
strong bases NaOH, KOH, NH2-, H-, Ca(OH)2, Na2O, CaO
polyprotic acid acids that can donate more than 1 proton
diprotic acid acids that can donate 2 protons, the second proton is usually so weak and often negligible
acid dissociation____ with acid concentration, but acid strength ____ with an acid concentration decreases, increases
3 factors determining whether H containing molecule will release its H and act as an acid (1) strength of bond holding H (2) polarity of the bond (3) stability of the conjugate base
___ conjugate base stability will increase acidity increasing
___ polarity will increase acidity decreasing
___ bond strength will increase acidity decreasing
in a series of oxyacids, more oxygens means a __ acid stronger (hypochlorous acid < chlorous acid < chloric acid < perchloric acid)
hydride cmpd with only 2 elements and 1 being hydrogen; can be acidic, basic, or neutral (where acidity increases down and to the right of the periodic table)
metal hydrides are ____ basic or neutral
nonmetal hydrides are ___ neutral or acidic
acidity of nonmetal hydrides tends to ___ going down the table increase (H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te
autoionization of water H2O + H2O --> H3O+ + OH-, equilibrium constant Kw
Kw [H+][OH-] = Ka*Kb = 10^-14
pKw =pH + pOH = 14
acid dissociation constant Ka, equilibrium constant for acid dissociating in water, = [H+][A-]/[HA]
Kb equilibrium constant for the reaction of the conjugate base with water, =[OH-][HA]/[A-]
salts ionic cmpd's that dissociate in water and often create acidic or basic conditions; pH of such son can be predicted qualitatively by comparing conjugates of the respective ions
titration drop-by-drop mixing of an acid and a base
equivalence point for a monoprotic acid, is the point in the titration when there are equal equivalents of acid and base in solution
equivalence point for equally strong acid-base titrations pH= 7
half equivalence point point where we could add the largest mat of acid or base w/ the least amt of change in pH (most well buffered); where there is 50% A- and 50%HA; point where half of the acid has been neutralized by the base
Henderson-Hasselbach eqn pH = pKa + log([A-]/HA]); when at the half equivalence point, the pH = pKa
indicator usually a weak acid whose conjugate base is a different color
endpoint of indicator point where the indicator changes color, but it is not the same as the equivalence point
Created by: miniangel918