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visceral endocrine

visceral parathyroid and adrenal pathology

This is due to surgical removal of the parathyroids at the time of thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism
radioactive iodine therapy, familial, agenesis of parathyroid (diGeorge syndrome) hypoparathyroidism
lab findings for hypoparathyroidism? decreased PTH, decreased serum calcium, increased phosphatemia
patient presents with increased neuromuscular excitability, tingling in the hands and feet, perioral numbness, muscle cramps, tetany and laryngeal stridor hypoparathyroidism
CNS symptoms of hypoparathyroidism convulsions, paranoia and psychoses
Tests for hypoparathyroidism? Trousseau's sign and Chvostek's sign
End-organ insensitivity to PTS psuedohypoparathyroidism
lab tests for pseudohypoparathyroidism? Normal PTH, decreased serum calcium, increased phosphatemia
cAMP in response to PTH is impaired in this disease pseudohypoparathyroidism
Patient presents with short stature, obesity, mental retardation, subcutaneous calcification, short metacarpals and metatarsals pseudohypoparathyroidism
Normal levels of PTH, decreasd serum calcium, increased phosphatemia, normal cAMP pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism
The etiology for primary hyperparathyroidism is what? parathyroidadenoma, MEN I
The etiology for secondary hyperparathyroidism is what? chronic renal failure (retention of phosphorus drives the calcium down and the PTH up)
Lab tests for secondary hyperparathyroidism? Increased PTH, hypophosphatemia, increased serum calcium
increased bone resorption, decreased renal clearance of calcium and increased intestinal absorption of calcium are all contributing factors for what? increased serum calcium associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism
Bone, stone, abdominal groan, moan, and asystole are clinical findings for whatZ? hyperparathyroidism
prolonged exposure to elevated levels of either endogenous glucocorticoids or exogenous glucocorticoids leads to what? cushing's syndrome
cushing's syndrome is associated with an increase in what? cortisol
The etiology for this disease includes adenoma, bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, secondary to oat cell carcinoma or exogenous steroid administration cushing's syndrome
patient presents with moon face, facial plethora, thick web neck (buffalo hump), truncal obesity, thin extremities, muscle wasting, purple striae, hypertension cushing's syndrome
in females with this disease, patients present with hirsutism, acne, infertility, and menstrual disturbances cushing's syndrome
Conn's syndrome is aka what? Primary Hyperaldosteronism
the etiology for what disease is a aldosterone secreting neoplasm? conn's syndrome
patient presents with increased blood pressure, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, increased serum aldosterone, muscle cramps and weakness, and headache conn's syndrome
what is an acute adrenal insufficiency referred to as? addisonian crisis
abrupt withdrawal of steroids from patients with chronic steroid administration will develop what? acute adrenal insufficiency; addisonian crisis
an etiology for what is acute hemorrhagic destruction of both adrenals by trauma? adrenal insufficiency; addisonian crisis
patient presents with severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fever, hypotension, confusion and hypoglycemia adrenal insufficiency
a chronic adrenal insufficiency is referred to as what? addison's disease
what is the etiology for addison's disease? autoimmune
decreased aldosterone and cortisol levels are indicative of what disease? addison's disease; chronic adrenal insufficiency
patient presents with hypotension, hypoglycemia, skin pigmentation, hyperkalemia, cardiac arrhythmias addison's disease
lab findings for addison's disease? decreased aldosterone, decreased glucocorticoid, increased ACTH
a defect in one of the enzymes that are necessary for the synthesis of cortisol (21, 17 or 11 hydroxylase)will cause what? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
lab tests for congenital adrenal hyperplasia? decreased cortisol, decreased OR increased aldosterone, increased ACTH
Female infants with ambiguous genitalia most likely have what disease? congenital adrenal hyperplasia
female patients present with amenorrhea and virilization, males present with precocious puberty congenital adrenal hyperplasia
what diseases are the result of a lost adrenal medulla? none
a tumor of the adrenal medulla casues what? pheochromocytoma: increased catecholamines
patient presents with increased heart rate, increased tachypnea, nervousness and anxiousness tumor of the adrenal medulla
This is caused by hyperglycemia and inadequate action of insulin on body tissues diabetes mellitus
decreased circulating levels of insulin or resistance of target tissues to the actions of insulin causes? diabetes mellitus
random plasma glucose >200mg/dL,fasting plasma glucose >136 mg/dL diabetes mellitus
what type of diabetes mellitus is autoimmune where AB attack beta cells resulting in a decrease or absence of insulin production? DM Type I
what type of diabetes mellitus is genetic, with no antibody and simply the result of insulin resistance? DM Type II
patient presents with increased urine (polyuria), increased thirst (polydypsia), weight loss, infection of the skin, vulva and urinary tract, and blurring of vision? diabetes mellitus
what are some acute complications of diabetes mellitus? ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma, hypoglycemic coma
what are some chronic complications of diabetes mellitus? microvascular disorders in the eye, kidney failure, autonomic neuropathy
patient presents with gycosuria (loss of sugar in the urine), hyperglycemia, ketonemia, ketonuria, kussmaul's respiration, odor of acetone on the breath, and marked dehydration ketoacidosis
This is commonly found in elderly patients, precipitated with infection, altered consciousness hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma
Hypoglycemic coma is aka what? insulin shock
decreased serum glucose due to either increased insulin dosage or delay in ingestion of a meal or increased physical activity or adrenergic stimulation hypoglycemic coma
Created by: kissukels587