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visceral pituitary

visceral pituitary pathology

QuestionAnswer
most common tumors of the pituitary gland include adenoma, craniopharyngioma
pituitary tumors may involve what? visual field defects
produce excess of any of or combination of pituitary hormones (hypERpituitary effects) functioning tumor
Get enlarged and compress on the rest of the gland producing hypOpituitary effects non-functioning tumor
what hormones does the adenohypophysis secrete? somatotropin (growth hormone), prolactin, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH
panhypopituitarism total failure of pituitary function
has become rare; by ischemic necrosis of the gland, often due to severe hypotension from postpartum hemorrhage Sheehan's syndrome
patient presents with agalactica, amenorrhea, hypothyroidism, and adrenocortical insufficiency Sheehan's syndrome
Hemorrhage or infarction can occur in normal pituitary leading to hypopituitarism Pituitary Apoplexy
Radiation damage or neurosurgical procedures can lead to hypopituitarism iatrogenic hypopituitarism and trauma
hypogonadotropic (decrease of GnRH) kallmann syndrome
This syndrome will cause a delay in appearance of secondary sexual characters kallmann syndrome
what are signs and symptoms of kallmann's syndrome? anosmia, cleft palate
enlarged sella with a thin, flat pituitary secondary to a congenitally defective or absent diaphragm sella empty sella syndrome
what is the result of empty sella syndrome? leakage of CSF and pressure causing hypopituitarism
a growth hormone deficiency leads to? dwarfism
decreased level of LH leading to the absence of secondary sexual characteristics Hypogonadism
Features of pituitary adenomas include? most are benign, cause hyperpituitarism
what is a cause of severe headaches, bitemporal hemianopsia and loss of central vision? pituitary adenoma impinging on the optic chiasm
a decrease in TSH leads to? mental retardation
This kind of tumor secretes an excess of prolactin hyperprolactinemia or prolactinoma
in females, this will cause amenorrhea, infertility and galactorrhea hyperprolactinemia or prolactinoma
galactorrhea Milk secretion in the absence of pregnancy
in males, this will cause absence of libido and impotence hyperprolactinemia or prolactinoma
Gigantism is caused by what? excess somatotropin before puberty
body grows abnormally longer with an excess uniform growth at the epiphyses of long bones gigantism
This is caused by an excess of somatotropin in an adult acromegaly
patient presents with increased growth of soft tissues such as the ear, nose and lips, increased space between upper incisor teeth and prognathism, enlargement of feet hands and jaw and increased soft tissue acromegaly
visceromegaly found in adults with acromegaly affects which organs? liver, heart, thyroid enlarged
what kind of joint abnormality does acromegaly lead to? osteoarthritis in vertebrae
hypertension, diabetes mellitus, headaches, paresthesias, athralgias and muscle weakness are all problems associated with what? acromegaly
an excess of ACTH leads to what? cushing's disease (bilateral adrenal involvement)
what two diseases are associated with problems of the neurohypophysis? diabetes insipidus, SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone)
deficient ADH, Deficient water reabsorption in the renal collecting tubules, increased amount of urine, extreme thirst and recessive water intake, serum osmolality is increased, hypernatremia diabetes insipidus
in the presence of LOW ADH, what happens to the urine and solute levels? increased urine, increased solute
in the presence of HIGH ADH, what happens to the urine and solute levels? decreased urine, decreased solute
is diabetes insipidus associated with high or low levels of ADH? low
is SIADH associated with high or low levels of ADH? high
This is often seen with oat cell carcinoma SIADH
increased level of ADH casues more water reabsorption from collectin tubules, urine is extremely concentrated, serum osmolality is decreased, hyponatremia SIADH
Created by: kissukels587