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visceral intestines

visceral small and large intestine pathology

QuestionAnswer
What are congenital anomalies of the small and large intestine? atresia, stenosis, Meckel's diverticulum
complete occulsion of the small intestinal lumen atresia
incomplete stricture which narrows but does not occlude the lumen of the small intestines stenosis
Outpouching of the ileum due to persistent vitelline duct meckel's diverticulum
peptic ulceration, intestinal obstruction, diverticulitis, perforation and peritonitis are all complications of what? meckel's diverticulum
sudden onset of bowel frequency associated with abdominal cramp diarrhea
This kind of diarrhea is due to cholera toxin, celiac disease, lactose intolerance, and laxatives secretory diarrhea
Blood and mucous in the stool due to ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease exudative diarrhea
hyperthyroidism and diabetic neuropathy causes this kind of diarrhea hypermotility diarrhea
this diarrhea is casued by damage to mucosal lining by bacteria, virus, etc inflammatory diarrhea
Not diarrhea, but is visible in the stool due to bowel tissue invasion, shigella or salmonella dysentery
antibiotic associated diarrhea that develops following the use of any antibiotic in the first few days. The causative organism is clotridium difficile pseudomembranous colitis
This kind of diarrhea is found in ulcerative colitis, crohns diseas, carcinona colon and is a common symptom in HIV patients due to cryptosporidium chronic diarrhea
different diarrheal diseases is referred to as what? enterocolitis
Decreased blood flow to the intestine due to any cause intestinal ischemia and infarction
is mucosal necrosis due to ischemia or infarction? ischemia
Patient presents with adynamic ileus (absence of peristalsis) that may lead to peritonitis and sepsis intestinal ischemia and infarction
common symptoms of this disease are diarrhea and steatorrhea Malabsorption syndrome
damage to the small intestinal mucosa due to abnormal sensitivity to gluten celiac sprue
Microscopically presents with villous atrophy celiac sprue
This is common after visitin south east asia or the caribbean tropical sprue
Long standing contamination of the bowel with e coli or associated with B12 and folic acid deficiency tropical sprue
lamina propria contains macrophages with the organisms; mucosal damage and lymphatic obstruction Whipple's disease
patient presents with diarrhea, fever and joint pain Whipple's disease
chronic inflammation of the large intestine that causes a continuous lesion and superficial inflammation ulcerative colitis
what is the cause of ulcerative colitis? Idiopathic
ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (regional ileitis) are considered what? Idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases
colonoscopy reveals increased mucosal friability and thick inflammatory exudates ulcerative colitis
patient presents with recurrent hematochezia with pus/mucous ulcerative colitis
patients with ulcerative colitis have a higher risk for developing what? colon adenocarcinoma
This is chronic inflammation of the small intestine that is prevalent in young adults and is 2-3 times more common in jews Crohn's Disease (regional ileitis)
This disease will present with intermittent lesions and transmural inflammation crohn's disease
Edematous mucosa presents with a "cobble-stone" appearance in this disease crohn's disease
In this disease the intstinal lumen narrows because of edema and fibrosis and creates non-caseating granulomas crohns disease
Patient presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever crohn's disease
complications of crohn's disease includes what? intestinal obstruction and fistulaas
Post surgical adhesions ((fibrous bands) between tissues/organs may cause what? bowel obstruction and strangulations
Telescoping of one segment of the intesting into another segment intusseception
This is common in children and presents with the four cardinal clinical effects of colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, "currant jelly" stools, and a tender palpable sausage-shaped abdomen intusseception
what are the four cardinal clinical effects of bowel intusseception? colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, currant jelly stools and a tender palpable sausage shaped abdomen
twisting of the intestine at least 180 degrees on its mesentary, resulting in blood vessel compression and ischemia volvulus
patient presents with vomiting and rapid, marked abdominal distention followed by sudden onset of severe abdominal pain volvulus
this is common in young adults and is caused by obstruction by fecalith appendicitis
Patient presents with anorexia, nausea, vomiting, periumbilical pain that is transmitted to macburney's point, rebound tenderness, and leukocytosis appendicitis
necrosis, gangrene, perforation and peritonitis are all complications of what? appendicitis
periumbilical pain as a result of appendicitis will refer where? macburney's point
outpouching of the mucous membrane of the intestine diverticulosis
This is common in the sigmoid colon, and is also known as left sided appendicitis diverticulosis
etiology of diverticulosis is what? decreased fiber in the diet
patient presents with moderate left abdominal pain and vomiting and upon x-ray a saw teeth appearance is noted diverticulosis
complications of diverticulosis include what? perforation, stricture, fibrosis
serpentine ulcer and non-caseating granulomas are microscopic features of this disease crohn's disease
involved segments of the intestine are often adherent to each other and cause fistula and obstruction crohn's disease
crohn's disease presents with what kind of inflammation and involvement? transmural inflammation, discontinuous involvement
ulcerative colitis presents with what kind of inflammation and involvement? superficial mucosal inflammation, continuous involvement
Microscopically you see mucosal congestion and hemorrhage and suppurative necrosis of the glands (crypt abscess) ulcerative colitis
A mass that protrudes INTO the lumen of the gut polyps
1000 or more polyps in the colon Familial adenomatous polyposis
If colectomy is not done all the patients with this disease will develop adenocarcinoma of the colon by the age of 40 years familial adenomatous polyposis
This disease is autosomal dominant familial adenomatous polyposis
Tubular, villous, or tubulovillous adenomas are considered what? premalignant lesions of the large intestine
what are the benign tumors of the large intestine? tubular (MC), villous or tubulovillous adenomas
what kind of benign tumor of the large intesting is common in the US? tubular adenoma
Male predominance, higher in black race than whites, and commonly found in the rectosigmoid region benign tumors of the large intestine
risk factors for this include familial history, high animal fat diet, low fiber diet and ulcerative colitis colorectal adenocarcinoma
why is a high animal fat, low fiber diet a risk factor for colorectal adenocarcinoma? associated with slower transit of fecal contents through the colon
This appears as polypoid masses or can involve the whole circumference and constrict the lumen or appear as ulcers with everted edges colorectal adenocarcinoma
an "apple core" appearance of the large intestine indicates what? an ulcer with everted edges
a mass in the large intestine that appears as a "napkin ring" indicates what? a mass that involves the whole circumference and constricts the lumen
patient presents with altered bowel habits, an abdominal palpable mass, abdominal pain, weight loss, anemia and hemetochezia colorectal adenocarcinoma
this is staged by Duke's staging method colorectal adenocarcinoma
where does colorectal adenocarcinoma preferrable metasticize to? liver
Created by: kissukels587