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bio exam3

codominant allele that are both expressed when they occur together in the heterozygous state (example are A and B alleles in the ABO blood groupings)
codon group of 3 mRNA bases each of which specifies an amino acid when translated
complementary a fundamental process in which adenosine pairs with thymine and guanine with cytosine
adenosine pairs with what in DNA? Thymine
Thymine pairs with what in DNA/RNA? Adenosine
Cytosine pairs with what in DNA/RNA? Guanine
Guanine pairs with what in DNA/RNA? Cytosine
adenoine pairs with what in RNA? Uracil
cytokinesis cytoplasmic division that occurs during mitosis and meiosis
diploid having 2 copies of each chromosome.
what is the diploid number for human chromosomes 46
DNA double helix, contains a nitrogenous base pairs, made of sugar deoxyribose, sugar-phosphate backbone
exon portions of the genes that encode for amino acids, retained
dominant an allele that is expresed in the same way in a single copy as in a double copy
gamete haploid germ cell ex. sperm and ovum
promoter before every structural gene this exists. dna sequence located 5' of a gene to which rna polymerase binds to begin transcription
enhancers increase the production of a particular protein....regulatory gene...ex.proto-onco genes
silencer turns of expression of a gene. ex. proto-onco genes
gene fundamental unit of heredity, information used to produce/codes for a protein
genotype indivdual's allelic constiution at a locus
haploid refer to the cells that have one copy of each chromosome, the typical state for gametes
what is the haploid number for humans? 23
heterozygous individual who has 2 different alleles at a locus
homologous dna/amino acids sequence highly similar to one another. refers to chromosones that pair during fertilization (1 from mom, one from dad)
homozygous individual with two alleles at the locus are the same
intron noncoding part of mrna,spliced out
meiosis cell division process in which haploid gametes are formed from diploid germ cells
metaphase stage of mitosis/meosis in which homologous chromosomes are arranged on the equatorial plane of the cell
mitosis cell division process in which 2 identical progency cells are produced from a single parent cell
nucleotide basic unit of dna or rna consisting of one deoxyribose (ribose in RNA case) one phosphate, and one nitrogenous base
phenotype observed characteristics of an individual, produced by the interaction of genes and enviroment
polymorphism a locus in which 2 or more alleles have gene frequencies greater than 0.01 in a population
prophase first stage of mitosis and meosis
recessive an allele that is masked by the dominant allele when the two occur in a heterozygote
repetitive DNA DNA sequences that are found in multiple copies in the genome
ribosomes site of translation of mature mesenger rna into amino acids sequences
satellite dna a portion of the dna that differs enough in base composition so that it form a distinct bond on a cesium, usually contain highly repeptitive dna sequences
somatic a cell other than those of the gamete-forming germline, in humans those are called haploid
structural gene genes that encode protein products
telophase a final major stage of mitosis and meiosis in which the daughter chromosomes are located on oppoite edges of the cell and new nuclear envelope is formed
transcription process in which mRNA sequence is sythesized from DNA template
allele refers to the different form or DNA sequences, that a gene can have in a population
anaphase one of the stages of cell division, in which sister chromatids seperate and move toward opposite ide of the cell
anticodon 3 nucleotides dna sequence in a trna molecule that undergoes complementary base pairing with mRNA codon
autosome the 22 pairs of chromosomes excluding the sex chromosomes (x and y)
centromere the region of a chromosome that seperates the two arms; site of attachment for the sspindle fibers during cell division
chromosome threadlike structure consisting of chromatin
mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis: the ribosomes. Here, the nucleic acid polymer is translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein
tRNA is a small RNA molecule (usually about 74-95 nucleotides) that transfers a specific active amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation
rRNA RNA component of the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells.provides a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and interacts with tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity
translation is the third stage of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). Where mRNA is decoded to create a protein.
splicing (mRNA) is a modification of an RNA after transcription, in which introns are removed and exons are joined.
regulatory gene is a gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. A regulator gene may encode a protein, or it may work at the level of RNA, as in the case of genes encoding microRNAs.
examples of regulatory genes promoter – bind RNA polymerase-before every structural gene properly orient the polymerase, give start point enhancer silencer
disjunction the seperation of chromosomes during cell division
chromatid is one of the two identical copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres, for the process of cell division (mitosis or meiosis).
antiparallel In biochemistry, two molecules are that run side-by-side in opposite directions. 5 to 3 prime end
Created by: 627780974
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