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Neuro II Olfact&Visu

Thomadaki Fall 2010

QuestionAnswer
Olfactory is part of what system? Limbic
What percent of odors are "noxious"? and "pleasant"? 80% noxious, 20% pleasant
Where is olfactory epithelium located? high in nasal cavity and around cribiform plate of ethmoid bone.
What types of cells compose olfactory epithelium? Basal cells, Olfactory receptor cells and supporting cells (sustentacular)
What are the basal cells in olfactory epithelium? And what do they become? epithelial stem cells that become new receptor cells?
Olfactory receptor cells are ________ cells whose dendrites bind to ______ and _______ axons to form the ______ bipolar; odorants; unmyelinated; olfactory nerve
Olfactory nerves go through the ______ to synapse with ___ & _____ cells in the _________. The bulb fibers travel in the ______ and branch into ___ & _____ cribiform plate; mitral & tufted; olfactory bulb; olfactory tract; medial & lateral olfactory stria
What are the second order neurons? olfactory bulb
Medial olfactory stria reaches the _____ (same/opposite) olfactory bulb through the _________ opposite; anterior commissure
Where does the lateral olfactory stria project to? Primary olfactory cortex
where is the primary olfactory cortex? and what composes it? anterior portion of parahippocampal gyrus, surrounding the amygdala. Piriform & entorhinal cortex
Where does the piriform cortex relay information? To orbitofrontal olfactory cortex (olfractory association cortex) and dorsomedial thalamic nucleus.
Olfaction is the only sense that does what? reaches cortex directly without synapsing with thalamus
To produce taste sense - central axons from ______ cells of CN __ (_____ ganglion), ____ (______ ganglion) and ____ ( ____-____ ganglion) carrying taste from _________, _______ and _______ respectively, synapse onto the _______. pseudounipolar cells; VII (genicular); IX (inferior); X (inferior-nodose); solitary nucleus
Secondary afferents from the _______ tract which ascends through the _____ and synapses with the ___ ____ ____ nucleus solitary; brainstem; ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus
From the thalamus, through the __________, the fibers end in the ______ located in the _____ portion of the _______, _______ & ____ portion of the ________ posterior limb of internal capsule; primary gustatory cortex; inferior portion of postcentral gyrus, operculum, superior portion of insula.
What lobe of brain is olfaction? temporal
Ions associated with sour H+ ions come in -> inhibits K+ from getting out
Ions associated with salty Na
Ions associated with sweet sucrose, glucose, etc. 2nd messenger system
Ions associated with bitter (1) 2nd messenger systems (causes intracellular Ca+2 to open and spill out NT) (2) blocks K+ channels
Ions associated with Umami Na driven but receptor is opened for glutamate and other AA. Na in -> ca in -> synapse
The retina receives the ____ visual field projection
What happens to the image in the retina? crossed and inverted
Optic tracts synapse in the ______ and those fibers form the _____ lateral geniculate nucleus; optic radiation
Optic radiation fibers that correspond to the upper 1/2 of the visual field form the ______ in the ______ lobe and terminate in the _____ gyrus. loop of meyer; temporal; lingual
Optic radiation fibers that correspond to the lower 1/2 of the visual field travel in the ______ lobe and terminated in the ______ parietal; cuneus
Lesion to R CN II optic? R anopsia
Sagittal lesion of optic chiasm bi-temporal (hemi) anopsia
Horizontal lesion of optic chiasm (internal carotid) L nasal hemianopsia (if cut on L)
R optic tract/LGB/ Optic radiation lesion L homonymous hemianopsia
lesion to R optic radiation in parietal lobe L homonymous lower quadrant anopsia
Lesion to R Loop of Meyer L homonymous upper quad anopsia
Lesion to R cuneus L homonymous lower quad anopsia with sparing of macula
Lesion to R lingual gyrus L homonymous upper quad anopsia w/ sparing of macula
What is the pathway for the light reflex? retina -> optic nerve -> optic tract -> superior brachium -> pretectal nucleus (bilateral) -> edinger-westphal nuclei -> oculomotor nerve -> ciliary ganglion -> short ciliary n -> ciliaris and sphincter pupillae muscles constrict pupil
What is the pathway for the accommodation reflex? Retina>optic n>optic tract>lat geniculate nuc>optic radiation>visual cortex>frontal eye field (area 8)>corticobulbar tract>pretectal nuc (bilateral)>edinger-westphal nuc->oculomotor n>ciliary ganglion>short ciliary n>Ciliaris & sphincter pupillae M
Argyle Roberts Pupil Accommodation reflex present; light reflex absent
What are Saccadic movements? tiny motions eye balls make when looking at an object (outlining the obj)
what structures coordinate visual, somatic, and auditory info, adjusting mvts of head to stimulus? superior colliculus, frontal eye field
Superior colliculus receives info about _______ and is concerned with what? motion in visual field; visual attentiveness and ID of broad outline of objects
The frontal eye field receives info from ______ and is concerned with what? primary visual cortex; fine visual discrimination and saccadic mvts to complex visual stimuli
sclera white tough wall of eye, no very well innervated
Conjuntiva thin lining over sclera and inside of eyelids
Cornea clear continuation of sclera over iris and pupil. highly innervated
Iris composed of muscles which constrict/dilate pupil
Macula part of retina which is MOST SENSITIVE and has the LEAST NUMBER OF VESSELS. Responsible for central vision
Fovea a 2mm pit in macula where all retinal layers are shifted away so that the image is received by the photoreceptors with the least amount of distortion.
Pupil a hole in iris. Size is controlled by iris muscles
Optic disk the blind spot. contains no photoreceptors. passageway of optic nerve & vessels.
there are ___ sets of neurons and _____ sets of interneurons in retina 3; 2
Deepest layer of retina are the _____; in the intermediate layer there are _____ and the superficial there are _____ photoreceptors; bipolar cells; ganglion cells
the axons of ganglion cells make up the ______ optic nerve
Communication between photoreceptors and bipolar cells is controlled by what cells? horizontal cells
Communication between bipolar cells and ganglion is controlled by what cells? amacrine
Characteristics of rods High sensitivity to light (1000x) single photon detection ability Night vision High photopigment, captures more light Saturate in daylight Low acuity Not present in fovea (found in macula & periph retina) 1 type of photopigment
Characteristics of cones Low sensitivity to light Day vision/color vision Low photopigment Saturate in intense light High acuity Concentrated in fovea 3 types of photopigment (blue, red, green)
Characteristics of peripheral retina High photoreceptor:ganglion ratio /\ rods \/ cones /\ sensitivity to light
Characteristics of central retina \/ cones:ganglion ratio No rods
Resting potential of retina in dark? -40mV
_____ is continuously produced in the _______ by enzyme _______ to keep Na channels open (-40mV) cGMP, photoreceptors, guanylate cyclase
Photopigment in the rods is called ____? rhodopsin
what is rhodopsin made of? retinal (vit A derivative) bound to an opsin
What are the cone's opsins? red, blue, green
what theory states that the combo of relative excitation and inhibition of the red, blue, green opsins in cones accounts for color vision? Young-Helmholtz
light bleaches retinal which activates ______, which stimulates a _______, _______, in disc membrane, which activates the effector enzyme _______ to ______ the enzyme ______, which causes __________ so that the photoreceptor membrane ______ to _____mV opsin; G protein, Transducin, PDE, breakdown, cGMP, Na channels to close, hyperpolarizes, -70
Hyperpolarization of photoreceptor causes the amount of glutamate to increase or decrease? decrease
What happens when light "bleaches" retinal? switches from cis to trans
What occurs during dark adaptation? Requires what? Pupils dilate, rhodopsin goes back to unbleached state (cis) which needs Ca+2
what is found in the receptive field of bipolar cells? all photoreceptors bipolar cells synapse with
what are the two types of photoreceptors in the receptive field? centre, surround
centre are photoreceptors that _____ synapse with bipolar cell directly
surround are photoreceptors that synapse with _____ that in turn synapse with ____ horizontal cells, bipolar cell
Created by: mrw2013