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EK Bio Lec3

Important words from Examkrackers MCAT Biology book, lecture 3

QuestionAnswer
What is a capsid? A protein coat around a virus
What is the envelope of an animal virus made of? It is lipid-rich and borrowed from the membrane of their host cell or synthesized in the host cell cytoplasm
How do viruses differ from living oranisms? 1. Require host's reproductive machinary to reproduce 2. Don't metabolize organic nutrients 3. In active form they are not separated from their external environment 4. Only posses DNA or RNA (not both)
What is a lytic infection? Occurs when a virus uses the cell's reproductive machinary to reproduce
What is the latent period? The time from infection to lysis
What is a virulent virus? A virus that follows that lytic cycle
What is a lyogenic infection? Occurs when viral DNA is incorporated into host genome or reverse transcriptase is used on RNA virus
What is a temperate virus? A virus that follows the lysogenic cycle
What is a provirus? A temperate virus that is lying dormant in a bacterium
What is a plus=strand RNA virus? A virus that has DNA that can be directly translated into proteins
What is a retrovirus? A virus that carries reverse transcriptase to create DNA from RNA
What is a minus-strand RNA virus? A virus that contains RNA that is complement to mRNA and must be transcribed to plus-RNA to be translated
What is a vaccine? An injection of antibodies or nonpathogenic virus
What are autotrophs? Organisms that get their carbon from carbon dioxide
What are heterotrophs? Organisms that get their carbon from organic compounds
What are phototrophs? Organisms that get their energy from light
What are chemotrophs? Organisms that get their energy from chemicals/oxidation
What are lithotrophs? Organisms that get their electrons from inorganic matter
What are organotrophs? Organisms that get their electrons from organic matter
What is nitrogen fixation? The process that converts nitrogen in ammonia
What is nitrification? The process that converts ammonia into nitrates
What are cocci shaped bacteria? Round-shaped bacteria
What are bacilli shaped bacteria? Rod shaped bacteria
What affects a compounds permeability? Size and polarity
What does hypertonic mean? Describes cytosol containing more particles than it's surrounding solution
What does hypotonic mean? Describes cytosol containing lessparticles than it's surrounding solution
What is a peptidoglycan? A series of disaccharide polymer chains with amino acids
What is a gram-positive bacteria? A bacteria whose thick cell wall prevents grain stain from leaking out
What is binary fission? A type of asexual reproduction that involves a process similar to replication in eukaryotes
What is conjugation? A type of genetic recombination that requires a bacterium to have a plasmid with a gene that codes for sex pilus
Created by: 1224000032
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