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10 in 10 Histology 3

10 in 10 slides for 3rd Histology Exam OSUCOM

QuestionAnswer
Aquired Immunodeficiency Disease Mediated by RNA retrovirus. Utilizes a glycoprotein (gp120) on its surface to bind to CD4 protein on the surface of T helper cells allowing virus to fuse with CD4+ T cells.
What is the process that HIV undergoes for its replication up to the point of transcription? GP120 glycoprotein binds to CD4 on T cell allowing fusion of the virus. Release of HIV contents including reverse transcriptase and its RNA-encoded genome. Reverse transcriptase converts the RNA->DNA->incorporated into genome of T cell. (1)
After HIV is incorporated into the T-Cell what then happens? Transcription and translation machinery of T cell now generates more copies of HIV. Replication occurs in T cell-> lyzes T cell-> release of thousands of new copies of HIV->infect more T cells.
What is the result of HIV infection? Decreased CD4->persistent re-occuring infections by opportunistic pathogens (pneumonia, toxoplasmosis) and development of malignancies (Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma).
How does the immune system respond to HIV infection? Generation of CD8, CTL, and Ab.
How is HIV diagnosed? The diagnosis is via PCR to detect virus RNA sequence and/or counts of CD4 T cells.
How is HIV treated? Cocktail of chemotherapeutic agents including AZT-an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase.
In general what is known as an abnormal swelling of the arm or leg? Also having these symptoms: swelling; restricted ROM; reoccurring infections in affected limb; and hardening and thickening of skin? Lymphedema.
In general a rare, inherited disorder causing improper development of lymphatic vessels? Primary Lymphedema
Which primary lymphedema begins in infancy; is a malformation of lymph nodes leading to lymphedema? Milroy's disease
Which primary lymphedema occurs in childhood or at puberty and lacks valves in lymphatic vessels resulting in a backward flow of lymph? Meige disease
In general: what lymphedema is caused by surgery; radiation treatment for cancer; obstruction by cancerous mass; and infection? Secondary Lymphedema.
A benign tumor of lymphatic vessels affecting 1:6000 and arises due to incomplete develpment and obstruction and failure to ocnnect with the venous system? Lymphangiomas
Formation of cysts; impairment of breathing; due to obstruction, incomplete development, or not connection to venous system. Lymphangiomas
What is the experimental treatment of Lymphangiomas? Drug treatment of OK-432 (Grp A strep + penicillin). It stimulates the inflammatory response leading to neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells. This causes the endothelium to be permeable allowing lymph to drain.
What is a symmetrical accumulation of fluid around the neck and head region? Cystic Hygromas
What disease is associated with chromosomal abnormalities such as Turner, Trisomies 21, 18 and 13? Cystic Hygromas
What does the continued swelling lf lymphatic vessels in Cystic hygromas lead to? A decrease in intravascular volume ultimately leading to cardiac failure.
True/False: Lymphatic filariasis affects 120 x 10e6 people worldwide in 80 different countries ranging from asia to S. America with increasing infection rates. True
Caused by nematode worms. Lymphatic Filariasis
What disease is caused by a bite from a mosquitoe? Infection of nematode male and female larvae? Lymphatic Filariasis
A blockage of lymphatic vessels caused by circulating nematode worms. Lymphatic Filariasis
What are the symptoms and alternative name of Lymphatic filariasis? Swollen limbs, (Elephantiasis)
What is the cure for Lymphatic filariasis? One must kill larvae. The adults will mate for 6 years and treatment must continue likewise. Treatment is a combination of albendazole, mectizan (heartgard for dogs), and diethylcarbamazine.
What disease was eradicated in China by adding drugs to salt? Lymphatic filariasis.
In severe cases this diseased state can cause impairment of swallowing and breathing. It is caused by group A streptococcal bacteria in most cases. Tonsilitis
What is a treatment for re-occuring abscess (hypertrophic tonsils)? Tonsillectomy
How do enlarged lymph nodes occur? Infection--> activation and migration of B cells to nodules in the cortex of lymph nodes. Activated B cells proliferate rapidly-->increasing node size several times normal.
What is diagnostic for upper respiratory infections and may become hard and palpable to touch? Enlarged Lymph Nodes.
This is a persistent neutrophilia due to a redistribution of neutrophils; total wbc > 50 k/microL but not greater than 100 k/microL. They are redistributed form marrow, microcirculation, and marginating compartment. Leukemoid Reaction
What is the most frequent causes of leukemoid reaction? Inflammation, infection, and malignancy.
Proliferated celles are partly or completely differentiated. Myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band forms, and neutrophils appear in peripheral blood. Total WBC count is > 100k/microL; increaseed Eos and Bas; LAP is <10; splenomegaly is usually present. Chronic myelogenous leukemia or chronic granulocytic leukemia.
What are the phospholipase B crystals that are found in diseases associated with eosinophilia and are seen in secretions of excretions (sputum, feces) or CT. Also found in the septum of asthmatics. Charcot Leyden Crystals
When might you find Charcot Leyden Crystals? With diseases associated with eosinophilia.
The condition when the platelet count <150,000/uL. Thrombocytopenia (TCP)
What is the leading cause of TCP? Thrombocytopenia's leading cause is alcohol which impairs the maturation of megakaryocytes. Counts will rise after 3-5 days of abstinance.
An X linked disorder characterized by deficient NADPH oxidase in the cell membranes of neutorphil and monocytes. Respiratory burst (RBP) is absent. Chronic Granulomatous disease (CGD)
What is the "classic" test for CGD? nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT) where neutrophils change to a blue color if the RBP is intact.
What is the "newer" test for CGD? The newer test involves oxidation of dihydrorhodamine to fluoresecent rhodamine.
In what conditions does machrophages fuse to create multinucleated giant cells? chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)
What is monocytosis? A condition in which the total wbc count is greater than 10% or greater than 800/uL.
What causes monocytosis? Anything causes it--bacterial, viral, and protozoan infections.
T/F Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia are two malignancies with extremely high monocyte counts. T
What are the conditions that cause Eosinophilia? 1. Substantial Dosage with glucocorticoids. 2. Substantial dosage with ACTH. 3. Stressors that cause high release of adrenal cortisol such as infection, burns, and trauma. 4. Cushing Disease. (hypercortisolism, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hirsutism)
Autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the production of rbcs that are sphere-shaped rather than biconcave shape (lacking central pallor). These cells are more prone to hemolysis. Extravascular hemolysis occurs in this case. Hereditary Spherocytosis
A mutation in ankyrin is the most common defect for this disease? Hereditary Spherocytosis
Mutations in spectrin, band 2, or band 3 account for other defects in which disease? Hereditary Spherocytosis
T/F Membrane transport activities of the rbc are affected; rbcs are osmotically fragile, and splenomegaly is a result in Hereditary Spherocytosis. T
Absence or decrease in production of ADH-->lesion of hypothalamus or posterior lobe of pituitary gland. Diabetes Insipidus.
What does ADH do? increase permeability of nephron-->rapid resorption of water across tubule epithelium (concentrating) urine.
An absence or decreased level of ADH will do what? cause the production of large volumes of dilute urine (up to 20 L/day); extremem thirst.
How is Diabetes insipidus diagnosed? and what is a treatment? Determing urine and/or blood concentration. Treatment includes: synthetic ADH.
What are pituitary adenomas and how are they treated? Tumors of the anterior pituitary usually composed of secretory cells. Enlarge and often suppress/increase(giganism) secretions by remaing pars distalis cells. Frequently destroy surrounding bone and neural tissue. Surgery to remove.
What are the essential thyroid hormones in fetal development? T3 and T4 cross placental barrier; critical in early stages of brain development. A deficiency during fetal development results in irreversible damage to CNS including decreased neurons, defective myelination, and mental retardation.
Another name for hypothyroidism. Creatinism.
What is the disease that has a diffuse enlargement of thyroid gland and protrusion of eyeballs (exophthalmic goiter)? Graves Disease
If a doctor was to see columnar-shaped thyroid follicular cells, increased production of thyroid hormones, and decreased amounts of follicular colloid, what disease would he/she suspect? Graves Disease
What is the treatment of Graves Disease? Surgical removal of theyroid gland or radiotherapy (labeled iodine) to destroy most active follicular cells; immunosuppression.
What is the most common symptom of thyroid disease? Simple goiter
What is an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to excessive release of TSH. Where is TSH released? Simple goiter, Anterior pituitary
True/False Hashimoto's thyroiditis is caused by an insufficient Chloride deficiency in the diet. False (insufficient iodine in diet)
What is the treatment of a simple goiter? Increase iodine in diet or synthetic thyroid supplement.
What is an over-activity of parathyroid glands that leads to an excess secretion of PTH and subsequent bone resporption? Hyperparathyroidism
What is Hyperparathyroidism associated with? High blood Calcium levels that may lead to deposition of Ca salts in kidneys (kidney stones--leading to UTI) and walls of blood vessels.
True/False A benign tumor of parathyroid glands may cause hyperthyroidism. True
What is the treatment in severe cases of hyperthyroidism? Partial removal of the galnd by surgery.
What condition would be described by an absence or decrease production of ADH? What would it be caused by, and what would be the result? Treatment? Diabetes Insipidus. Lesion of hypothalaums or posterior lobe of pituitary gland. large volumes of dilute urine (20L/day). Treatment would be synthetic ADH.
What might cause a decrease in secretions by cells in the pars distalis? It might also frequently destroy surrounding bone and neuronal tissue. PRL tumors may account for 50% of this general issue. Pituitary Adenoma.
A deficiency in T3 and T4 during fetal development might cause these three developmental issues. Irreversible damage to CNS including: Decreased number of neurons, defective myelination, and mental retardation.
Congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism) combination of CNS damage and stunted growth might be caused by this. T3 and T4 deficiency. These two stimulate gene expression for GH which would lead to the problems.
What disease is characterized by diffuse enlargement of thyroid gland and protrusion of the eyeballs? Graves Disease
True/False. The suspected histological findings of Graves disease would be: columnar -shaped thyroid follicular cells, increased production of thyroid hormones, and increased amounts of follicular colloid. False. Everything is true except the last point. You would actually see a decrease in follicular colloid.
What is the most common symptom of thyroid disease? Simple Goiter
This disease is associated with high blood calcium levels and an overactivity of the parathyroid gland. Hyperparathyroidism
Caused by an inadequate amount of adrenocortical hormone. Symptoms include weight loss, muscle weakness, fatique, low BP, skin hyperpigmentation. Addison's Disease
Usually caused by the destruction of the adrenal cortex leading to decreased adrenocortical hormones. Can be caused by autoimmune disease or tuberculosis. Life threatening and requires steroid treatment Addison's Disease
Which Multiple endocrine Neoplasia is described by the following? Prevalence 1:35,000 associated w/ pituitary adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia, and pancreatic tumors. MEN1
Which multiple endocrine neoplasia is described by the following? Medularry pheochromocytoma, parathyroid hyperplasia, and thyroid carcinoma MEN2
This was first described in 1903 in patient with acromegaly, pituitary adenoma, enlargement of 3 out of 4 parathyroid glands. MEN
Patients who have two or more tumors of the endocrine gland might be diagnosed with this. MEN
Symptoms of this would be paralysis of upward gaze due to compression vertical gaze center in midbrain tectum at level of superior coliculus and CN III. Pinealoma with Parinaud syndrome
True/False Parinaud syndrome can also be called Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome True
Disruption of hypothalamic inhibitory pathways leading to b-hCG secretion leading toLeydg cell stimulationg leading to testosterone; hydrocephalus; gait distrubance and precocious puberty. Pinealoma with Parinaud Syndrome
A disease characterized by a total decrease in or total absence of plasma insulin. Elevated blood glucose and loss of glucose in the urine. Diabetes Mellitus
A Chronic, blistering skin disorder caused by the action of IgG antibodies to surface antigens on keratinocytes, an autoimmune disorder. Pemphigus vlgaris (PV)
Disease characterized by Intraepidermal blister, Basal cells resemble a row of tombstones, and it is a type II hypersensitivity reaction. Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV)
Keratin filament disorder-Keratin Molecular defect Epidermolytic (EB)
Cleavage in the lamina lucida-laminin molecular defect Junctional (EB)
Entire basal lamina and epidermis split--Type VII Collagen (anchoring fibril) defect. Dermolytic (EB)
Characterized by excessive production of collagen in the dermis, can occur in other organs such as kidney, GI tract, and lungs. When it occurs in the skin it is this disease. Characterized by tightening of skin, radial furrowing around the lips. Scleroderma
Disease in which you find the following hisological findings: enlarged collagen bundles, occluded or disappearance of vasculature/appendages in dermis. Scleroderma
May be categorized as tyrosinase positive or negative. Albinism
Created by: jpriddle01