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Post-Cold War

based on the Modern World History book

detente 1970's- easing of tensions between the US and the Soviet Union (the two superpowers)
Helsinki Agreements 1975- signed by US, Canada, and all Europen nations, border agreement
Jimmy Carter U.S. president (1977-1981). cancelled Olympic Games in 1980, put embargo on exports to the Soviet Union
Ronald Reagan U.S. president- elected in 1980, began new arms race, helped Afghani's fight against Sov. Union
Strategic Defense Initiative nicknamed SDI, "Star Wars", part of arms race- tried to create a shield against missiles
Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in Sov. Union in 1985, helped end Cold War, created INF Treaty w/ the United States (1987)
reunification of Germany October 3, 1990
Leonid Brezhnev Soviet Union leader, emphasized heavy industry, allowed some westernization, created a bureaucracy through gov.'s central planning
dissidents people who spoke out against the Soviet government, punished harshly
KGB secret police in the Soviet Union during the 1970's
perestroika reforms based on "restructuring," created market economy with limited free enterprise, allowed small companies
Watergate Scandal 1970's- political scandal, led to Nixon's impeachment, Republican party (including Nixon) involved in finding out about Democrats
glasnot Gorbachev's policy- "openness"- idea of free speech in the newspapers (ex. Pravda newspaper)
two-candidate elections introduced June 1987, still not completely fair because candidates were from the same party
Ukraine independence December 1, 1991
Boris Yeltsin Soviet leader, elected in June 1991, tried to introduce free-market economy, used forse against the Chechens
Brezhnev doctrine allowed Soviet Union Communists to protect Communists in other states if they were threatened
Francois Mitterand French Socialist leader, makes reforms ex. upping workers' wages, nationalizes, industrializes, very liberal
Chirac French conservative leader, elected in 1995
Willy Brandt policy of "opening to the east" - Ostpolitik, brought down by spies in the government
Helmut Schmidt German leader, successor to Willy Brandt
Helmut Kohl German leader elected in the 1980's
Gerhard Schroeder head of the coalition between Socialists + Greens
Gasterbeiters German name for "guest workers"- immigrants
the "Troubles" 1972- Great Britain vs. Ireland- fight for territory in Northern Ireland
IRA Irish terrorist group that started campaign to get British out of Ireland
Margaret Thatcher first woman to be a British prime minister, called the "Iron Lady", policy of Thatcherism--took away some benefits of the welfare state, friendly with Reagan
Lech Walesa Polish worker who organized a national trade union known as Solidarity, became Polish president in 1990
Pope John Paul II first Polish pope
Gustav Husak Czech Communists leader, repressed people, under him there were mass demonstrations
December 1989 Communist government collapsed in Czechoslovakia
Nicolae Ceausescu (and wife Elena) set up dictorial regime in Romania (in 1965)- economic policies made standard of living drop, created food shortages, rapid urbanization plans
Securitate Romanian secret police under Ceausescu
Bucharest Romanian city where mass demonstrations occurred
Ion Iliescu took over in Romania in 1989 after Ceausescu and his wife were captured
Erich Honecker became head of Communist party in Germany in 1971
November 9th, 1989 Berlin Wall opened
March 18, 1990 East Germany's first free elections--Christian Democrats win the vote
October 3, 1990 East Germany's political union with West Germany (which the Christian Democrats supported)
Marshall Joseph (Broz) Tito Yugoslavian dictatorial leader, tried to keep different republics and provinces of Yugoslavia together
collective state presidency the Yugoslavian gov. after Tito's death, was under the Communist Party
June 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declare their independence after negotions between the dif. countries failed
Created by: starz1621