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Rubenstien ch. 2 voc

Vocab Ch. 2 from Rubenstien's Intro to AP Human Geography

QuestionAnswer
Agricultural Density ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural Revolution The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Arithmetic Density The total amount of people divided by the total land area
Census A complete enumeration of a population
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Crude Death Rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Demographic Transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of low high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher population
Demography The scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency Ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Doubling Time The number of years needed for a population to double, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Epidemiologic Transition Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Epidemiology Branch of medical science concerned with incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy The average amount of years an individual is expected to live.
Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled people
Medical Revolution(continued) to live longer and healthier lives.
Overpopulation When there is more people in a region than the resources can accomodate comfortably
Pandemic Disease that occurs over a large geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of arable land, which is land suited for agriculture
Population Pyramid A bar graph representing the distibution of a population by age and sex
Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in the population
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) The average number of children a woman will have in her child bearing years
Zero Population Growth (ZPG) The decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
 

 



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