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Liver, Gallbladder, & Pancreas

What shape is the classic liver lobule? Hexagon (6 sides)
What shape is the Portal lobule? Triangle shape
What shape is the Liver acinus? Diamond
What vein is found in the center of a hepatocyte? Central v.
What are the 3 main components of the protal triad? Portal v., Hepatic a., Bile duct (*4th component = lymphatic tissue)
What is the exocrine function of the liver? It secretes bile
What is the excretory function of the liver? It secretes bilirubin
What is the endocrine function of the liver? It secretes blood-borne substances
What type of immune cells are found in the liver? Kupffer cells (macrophages)
What do Kupffer cells secrete? Lymph fluid
When does hematopoiesis begin in the embryo? 2nd trimester
What is the detoxification function of the liver? It detoxifies & breaks down fat, soluble drugs, and hormones
Where is the portal triad located? Each corner of a classic liver lobule
What is a liver sinusoid? A sinusoidal capillary that arises at the periphery of a lobule and runs between adjacent plates of hepatocytes
Which 2 veins supply blood to the liver? Portal vein (75%) Hepatic vein (25%)
What is a hilus? A depression or dissure where vesels or nerves enter an organ
What is the route for bile flow out of the liver? Through the bile duct to the gall bladder and then to the small intestine
What type of blood does the portal vein supply to the liver? O2-poor blood from the intestine (and stomach, spleen); provides nutrients and carries toxins
What type of blood does the hepatic vein supply to the liver? O2-blood
In the liver, where does blood from the hepatic a/v & portal v travel? Sinusoids
In the liver, where does blood from the sinusoids travel? Central v.
In the liver, where does blood from the central v. travel? Sublobular v.
In the liver, where does blood from the soblobular v. travel? Hepatic v.
In the liver, where does blood from the hepatic v. travel? IVC
What other organs supply blood to the hepatic v. before it drains into the IVC? GI organs, pancreas, spleen
What is the source of blood for the hepatic a/v? Abdominal aorta
What is the source of blood for the portal v? Alimentary canal & spleen
What zone of the liver acini is damaged first by hepatotoxic agents? Zone 3
Which zone of the liver acini is the most O2-rich? Zone 1
Which zone of the liver acini is O2-poor? Zone 3
Which zone of the liver acini is closest to the terminal portal v? Zone 1
Which zone of the liver acini gets the highest concentration of nutrients? Zone 1
Which zone of the liver acini is protected from toxins but vulnerable to anoxia? Zone 3
What is anoxia? Severe to total deprivation of O2 to tissues or organs = severe hypoxia
Which lobule of the liver has an exocrine function? Portal lobule
Where is bile secreted? Into portal lobule
What is Glisson's capsule? Thin, dense irregular collagenous C.T. capsule that covers the external surface of the liver
What are the histological characteristics of hepatocytes? High mitochondria, High RER, High SER, High Lysosomes, High Peroxisomes, High lipid droplets, High glycogen deposits, several golgi complexes; some polyploidy, some binucleated cells (25%)
Where is the Space of Disse? Between hepatocytes and sinusoids
True or false: Hepatocytes are in direct contact with the bloodstream. False. The Space of Disse connects hepatocytic endocrine secretions with the bloodstream
What are the histological characteristics of the Space of Disse? Contains blood plasma, microvilli of hepatocytes, reticular fibers (to maintain sinusoid structure), & some nonmyelinated nerve fibers
In the liver acinus/Acinus of Rappaport, where is the short axis found? Between 2 portal triads
In the liver acinus/Acinus of Rappaport, where is the long axis found? Between 2 central veins
What are the 2 main functions of hepatocytes? They produce bile & detoxify blood
Which organ is capable or regeneration? The liver
What causes Cirrhosis of the liver? Hepatic cell injury from long-term insult (ex. alcohol), leads to intense collagen secretion in the liver, followed by fibrosis, a breakdown of the lobule structure, and portal hypertension
What cells secrete collagen in the liver? Myofibroblasts
What type of liver cells are APC (antigen-presenting cells)? Kupffer cells
What is meant by the statement that Endothelial cells are FGB? Fenestrated, Gap, Basal lamina -- They are permeable
What are the fat-storing cells of the liver? ITO cells
Where are ITO cells located? They are stellate cells in the Space of Disse
What do ITO cells normally store? Vitamin A
When there is an injury to ITO cells, what do they store? They divide, change phenotype (to myofibroblast?) and synthesize collagen -- this leads to fibrosis
What are the Bile Caniculi? Small enlargement in extracellular space between 2 adjacent hepatocytes; join bile ducts in portal triad
What seals Bile Caniculi? Zonula occludens (gap junctions)
What are the Canals of Hering? Bile ductules at the periphery of classic liver lobules that receive bile from Bile Caniculi
Where are bile ducts found? In portal areas
Where do bile ducts receive bile from? Canals of Hering
When bile ducts enlarge and fuse to form hepatic ducts, where do they leave the liver? Porta hepatis
What type of epithelia is found in Canals of Hering? Squamous
Which blood-borne substances/ plasma proteins are released as an endocrine function of the liver? Prothrombin, fibrinogen, albumin, factor III, lipoproteins
What is the function of the gall bladder? Concentration, storage, and release of bile
What is released from the small intestine upon intake of a rich meal (fats + proteins) CCK
What does CCK stimulate? 1. Contraction of gall bladder, expulsion of bile into duodenum 2. Release of pancreatic enzyme
What causes contraction of gall bladder? 1. CCK 2. (maybe) stimulation by Ach
What results from contraction of gall bladder and expulsion of bile into the lumen of the duodenum? Bile is recycled in enterohepatic recirculation
What recycles bile? Portal vein
Where does recycled bile go? Liver
What are the layers of the muscular wall in the gall bladder? 1. Mucosa 2. Muscle layer = Muscularis externa 3. Connective tissue layer (in BRS) 4. Serosa & Adventitia
What type of epithelia is found in the mucosal layer of the gall bladder? Simple columnar
What type of epithelia is found in the muscularis externa layer of the gall bladder? Smooth m. cells
What type of epithelia is found in the connective tissue of the gall bladder? Dense irregular collagenous connective tissue
What else is found in the connective tissue layer? Nerves, blood vessels
Most of the gall bladder is covered by ___, but around the area where the gall bladder attaches to the liver, it is covered by ___. Serosa; Adventitia
What 2 layers are NOT found in the gall bladder? Muscularis mucosae, Submucosa
What is produced by the exocrine part of the pancreas? Digestive enzymes (trypsin, trypsin-inhibiting factors, amylase, lipase)
Does the exocrine part of the pancreas release serous or mucus? Serous
What is produced by the endocrine part of the pancreas? Hormones (Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin)
What do alpha-cells in the pancreas produce? Glucagon
What do beta-cells in the pancreas produce? Insulin
What do delta-cells in the pancreas produce? Somatostatin
What color will Islets of Langerhans stain? Pale-stained color
What type of stain is used to differentiate alpha, beta, and delta cells? H&E staining
What do pancreatic EEC secrete? CCK & Secretin
What does secretin release? Alkaline pancreatic fluid from duct cells
What does CCK do? Secretes bile from gall bladder, produces & releases pancreatic enzymes
Is neural stimulation in the pancreas regulated by the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system? Parasympathetic
What is the pathway of centroacinar cells to the pancreatic duct? 1. Centroacinar cells 2. Intercalated duct 3. Larger intralobular duct 4. Interlobular duct 5. Pancreatic duct
What causes Type I Diabetes? No Beta-cells = No insulin production
What causes Type II Diabetes? Beta cells are normal; target cells have large reduction of insulin receptors
Created by: 1683642184



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