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Prehistory Species

ANT 202

QuestionAnswer
Sahelanthropus tchadensis (6-7 MYA) Reported by Michel Brunet. The fossil consists of a remarkably complete skull (cranium). Non-prognathic profile, small canines and many other traits of the teeth distinguish it as a hominid not an ape. Small cranial capacity (380 cc)
Ardipithecus ramidus (4.5 MYA) Found in the Awash area of the Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia. Reported by Tim White from U. C. Berkeley who argues that the species was bipedal but also spent a lot of time in trees (chimp-like feet).
Australopithecus africanus (3.0-2.5 MYA) Taung baby, Taung Limestone Mine South Africa 1925 (reported by Raymond Dart). iv A. africanus appears to represent one of two lines of Australopithecines that split from A afarensis (the Lucy line)
Australopithecus garhi e New find: In Ethiopia, Middle Awash: Australopithecus garhi 2.5 MYA. Found by Tim White appears to be associated with animal bones that were butchered with stone tools.
Homo habilis (Early Homo) 2.5-2.0 MYA > 600 cc Less prognathic
Homo erectus (Middle Homo) 1.9-0.2 MYA 800-1000cc Generally very robust No chin Almost no forehead—low and sloping
Homo heidelbergensis (Transitional or Archaic)
Homo sapiens (Late Homo) >= 1200cc
Homo sapiens idalto
Homo sapiens sapiens brow ridge absent 1400cc gracile
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis 150,000 years ago brow ridge present 1450 cc. Some up to 1850 robust
Homo floresiensis Last hominin 38,000-18,000 BP 1 Bi-pedal, waist down not fully modern 2 Stone tools (flakes & cores) 3 Brow ridge 4 Hunted
Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens sapiens (AMHSS)
“Lucy” Australopithecus afarensis 3.2 MYA 40% complete female found at Hadar in the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. Discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson. (a) Prognathous, human like hands, 415cc, no tools (b) Bipedal, but with robust curved arms tree climb
“Ardi” Ardipithecus ramidus (4.5 MYA) Found in the Awash area of the Great Rift Valley in Ethiopia. Reported by Tim White from U. C. Berkeley who argues that the species was bipedal but also spent a lot of time in trees (chimp-like feet).
Cro Magnon Europe, 35,000 BP
Created by: wolvess