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BCH II-PPP & Krebs

Balliet Fall 2010

PPP makes what? NADPH & Ribose 5P
NADPH is need for synthesis of what? FA, cholesterol, steroid hormones, bilt salts
Ribose 5P is needed for synthesis of what? Nucelotides, DNA, RNA
PPP Is AKA? Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
When pentoses are not needed they are cycled back to _______? Fructose
PPP begins with _______ and returns as _______ G6P, F6P
What are the 2 stages of PPP? Redox (irreversible); Inter-conversion (reversible)
PPP runs how many times? to make what? 3 times to make 3 ribulose 5P
What is the location of the Krebs cycle? matrix of Mitochondria
What is the purpose of Krebs? Biosynthesis & energy production
What is the start molecule for Krebs? Acetyl CoA
What are the products of Krebs? 3NADH + FADH2 + 2CO2 + GTP
How is Acetyl CoA produced? 1) gluc --> pyruvate --> mitochondria --> Acetyl CoA + CO2 2) Triglycerides --> FA (via carnitine into mitochondria) --> Acetyl CoA 3) AA enter as intermediates to Krebs
What are all the vitamins needed for pyruvate DH complex? B1,2,3,5, Lipoic acid
Pyruvate DH complex is a bridge btw ___ & ____? Carbs & TCA cycle
Regulation of Pyruvate DH complex occurse via __ & __ activity of __ kinase, phosphatase, PDH
What type of protein is Aconitase? Fe-S protein
Does acetyl CoA product glucose? No....it's ketogenic
Carbons derived from fat _____ contribute to net synthesis of glucose cannot
What is the allosteric enzyme in krebs? Isocitrate DH...inhibited by high level of NADH & ATP
Alpha Ketoglutarate DH requires what vitamins? It is similar to what enzyme? B1,2,3,5, lipoic acid. PDH
Succinate thiokinase is aka? Succinyl CoA Synthase
Succinyl CoA makes what? Heme
What is embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane? It is a component of what? Succinate DH. Complex II in cytochrome chain
What enzyme converts fumarate to malate? Fumarase
What what does fumarase require? water
What enzyme converts malate to oxaloacetate? and what does it produce? Malate DH, NADH
What enzymes go through substrate-level phosphorylation? Phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kindase, succinyl-CoA synthetase
Where does substrate-level phosphorylation occur? Cytoplasm/matrix
What is unique about Substrate phosphorylation? Doesn't go through Electron Transport
Where does Oxidative phosphorylation take place? Mitochondria
What enzymes go through oxidative phosphorylation? G3P DH, Pyruvate DH, Isocitrate DH, alpha ketoglutarate DH, Succinate DH, Malate DH
What allosteric enzyme regulates for carbs only? Pyruvate DH
What allosteric enzyme regulates for proteins and fats? Isocitrate DH
TCA cycle is regulated by what two factors? Allosteric regulation of DH by availability of NAD+, availability of OAA
Pyruvate DH rate of production is increased by what? Increased levels NAD+, pyruvate & CoASH; PDH phosphatase; Insulin, Ca (anaerobic muscle ctx)
Pyruvate DH rate of production is decreased by what? Increased levels of NADH & Acetyl-CoA; PDH Kinase; Increased fat metabolism (during fasting or aerobic exercise)
What effect does a high carb diet have on OAA and TCA cycle? Increases OAA & rate of TCA cycle
What effect does a low carb diet have on OAA and TCA cycle? Decreases OAA & rate of TCA cycle
Isocitrate DH is allosterically inhibited by what? ATP & NADH
High levels of citric acid have what effect on Krebs? Allosteric inhibition of PFK, Increases FA synthesis (increases triglycerides and adipose)
AA that are converted to Pyruvate Alanine (SGPT), Glycine, Serine, Threonine, Cyteine, Tryptophan [make urea in liver --> SGPeeT]
AA converted to Alpha Keto-glutarate Glutamate, Histadine, Arginine, Proline [I'm HAP-G to make alpha keto-glut]
AA converted to Succinyl CoA Valine, Isolueucine, Methionine [I have VIM & vigor]
AA converted to Fumarate Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Aspartate [PAT is fuming]
AA converted to OAA Aspartate, Asparagine [enzyme SGOT]
AA converted to Acetyle CoA Leu (ketogenic), Tryptophan, Isoleucine
Tryptophan enters TCA cycle at what point? Pyruvate
Isoleucine enters TCA cycle at what point? Succinyl CoA
AA converted to Acetoacetate Leucine, Lysine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan
What AA enter TCA cycle at Fumarate? Phenylalanine, Tyrosine
Created by: mrw2013