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Unit 2 cvtc

ch 3,4,5

QuestionAnswer
The cell is the fundamental unit of any living organism because it exhibits the basic characteristics of life.
The two catagories of cells: Eucaryotic(more complex) and procaryotic
Procaryotic microbes: Bacteria and archaea (Cellular)
Eucaryotes algae, protozoa, fungi (Cellular) plant, animals, and humans.
Microbes not composed of cells viruses, prions, viroids
Viruses acellular: not living
Cellular procaryotes (archaea, bacteria, cyanobacteria)
Acellular (energy from host) viroids, prions, viruses
Eurotic cells contain a ________ nucleus. "true"
procaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus
a true nucleus consists of: nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and nuclear membrane.
Eucaryotic cells possess: a complex system of membranes and membrane bound organelles
Procaryotic cells do not possess a complex of membranes and membrane bound organelles
eucaryotic and procaryotic cells possess a cell membrane: selectiv permeability, allowing certain substances to pass through them.
Eucaryotic nucleus "command center" 3 components: nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and nuclear membrane.
Chromosomes are embedded in: the nucleopasm
eucaryotic chromosomes consist of: linear DNA molecules and proteins
Genes are located along chromosomes.
An organism's complete collection of genes are referred to as its genotype or genome (beads on a string)
each gene contains information to produce one or moree gene products (usually protein)
A semi-fluid, gelatinous, nutrient matrix. Contains storage granules and a variety of organelles.Each organelle has a specific function. Is where most metobalic reactions occur Cytoplasm
ER highly convoluted system of membranes, transport network,in the cytoplasm
rough ER has ribosomes attatched
smooth ER does not have ribosomes attatched to it
Ribosomes 18-20nm in diameter, consist of ribosomal RNA protein, site of protein synthesis, 30-70 bind then produce protein
Plants, Algae, Fungi, and most bacteria have a cell wall
animal, protozoa, and mycoplasma species do not have a cell wall
Gram- Neg cell wall LPS above surface,(phospholipid, outer membrane, protein)
Acellular Not composed of cells; Viroids prions; viruses
Viruses have a protein coat called capsid, 10-300nm diameter, complete particles are called virions.
Infect humans, animals, plants, fungi protozoa, algae, and bacteria cell. viruses
Some viruses cause certain cancers oncogenic or oncoviruses
cause of AIDS; enveloped, single strand of RNA viruses primary targets are CD4and cells HIV
Prions acellular; small infectious proteins that cause neurological disease such as mad cow. most resistant to disinfectants. mystery
Viroids are infectious RNA molecules that cause a variety of plant disease (potaoe spindle tuber, citrus exocortis)
Microbial Classification by whitticure in 1969 5-Kingdom System of classification; Grouped into large group based on simularities and diffrences. (most widely used)
Bacteria and archaea Microbial classification Kingdom Procaryotae
Algae and protozoa Microbial classifcation Kingdom Protista
Fungi Microbial classification Kingdom Fungi
Plants Microbial classification Kindom Plantae
Animals Microbial classification Kingdom animalia
Microbial Classification by carl woosey 1970's 3 domain system of class: based on differences in structure of ribosomal RNA molecules among organisms.
3 Domain syatem of classifications Archaea (procaryotic) acient bacteria, Bacteria (procaryotic), Eucarya (all eucarotic organisms)
Virulent bacteriophage; attatchment,penetration, uncoating viral nucleic acid escapes from capsid, biosynthesis,assembley to create complete virions, release complete virions lytic cycle
class & ID: cell morphology, stain reaction, motility, colony morphology,atmospheric req, nutritional req,enzymes produced, pathogenicity, genetic composition Domain Bacteria Characteristics
Domain bacteria characteristics 3 major phenotypic catagories: gram-neg(cell wall), gram-pos (cell wall), those that lackcell wall (mycoplasmic)
acellular antibiotics are not effective against viral infections, drugs that are used, interfere w/ virus-specific enzymes and production by disrupting phases in viral multiplication/ inhibiting synthesis of viral RNA/DNA or protein antiviral agents
escape from their host cells either by lysis of the cell or budding. animal viruses
escape by budding become envelope viruses
penetration of host cell by non-enveloped virus via endocytosis. Penetration by an enveloped virus summary of lytic process
phages, virus that infect bacteria, 2 catagories: virulent and temperate. bacteriophages
always cause lytic cycle which end with destruction of the cell virulent
attatchment,penetration, biosynthesis, assembly, released 5 steps of the Lytic Cycle
bacteria that recycle nutrients, produce antibiotic, and preserve food. Very few are harmful or cause disease. 1000nm Procaryote
cellular, selective permability: archaea,bacteria, and cyanobacteria. Do not have true nucleus, do have cell membrane procaryotes
Peritrichous bacteria procaryotic and have flagella over entire surface
lophotrichous bacteria flagella at one end like an octopus
amphitrichous bacteria have one flagella at each end
monotrichous bacteria flagella at one end
2 donor 1 recipient, hair-like seen by gram-neg, made of polymerized protein called pillin, not associated with motility, anchor. pili: a.k.a fimbrae
4 layers: Teichoric acids (top of lipoteichoic), peptidoglycan contains lipoteichoic acids, cell membrane contains protein, and cyto plasm gram-positive cell wall
reproduce by binary fission:cell spilts into 2 daughter cells but before chromosomesa must duplicate. procaryotic cell reproduction
Time it takes binary fission generation time: varies depends on growth condition. E. coli about 20 min. but most bacteria 20-24hrs depending on enviroment.
3 basic (based on shape): cocci(round), Bacilli (rod-shape), curved/ spiral bacterial cell morphology
Cocci diplcocci-1 or2, Strepto-chain, staph-clusters,tetrads-4pack, octads 8 pack
taxonomy established based on the binomial system of nomenclature. Microbial classification.
each given 2 names: genus and specific epithet. both constitute species. binomial system
Glycocalyx(slime layers and capsules;some bacteria posses. Is a slimy, gelatinous material made by cell membrane and secrete out side cell wall. Procaryotic cell structure
2 types:loosly connected to cell wall highly organized and a firm connection. Glycocalyx
Pseudmonas produce slime layers, K.pneumonia,N.meningitidis, and S.pneumoniae posses capsule(serves as antiphagocytic function Glycocalx (of the procaryotic cell structure)
motile bacteria; whiplike,threads of protein, protein is flagellin. # and arrangement are characteristic of a particular sp. Flagella of the procaryotic cell
sequence for taxa Kingdom, division,class,order, family,genus, species.KDCOFGS
air dry, heat fix,hold over boiling water, apply malachite green over smear,let steam for 1min, rinse w/ distilled water(rinses stain out of vegative cells), apply safranin for 30 sec spore stain procedure
procaryotic, few genera(bacillus and clostridum)capable of forming thick-wall for survival, sporulation/ no rep,survive many yrs, resistant to heat, chemicals, cold and drying. Spore (endospore)
eucaryotic cell that does not have cell wall animal cell
have a simple cell wall plant cell
do not contain true nucleus, do not have membrane bound organelles. They do have cell membrane that encloses cytoplasm procaryotic cells
are dormant and surround DNA and allow resist to chem, heat and drying. composed of exosporium, spore coat, cortex,core(sporeproplast)- core wall, cytoplasm,nucleoid,ribosomes endospores
DNA duplicate, seperate into sporangium and forespore,sporangium engulf forespore then produce spore layer around forespore,cortex and outer coat layer divide, last a completely formed mature spore endospore formation
sporulation nutrition depletion(maj stimulus),once depleted it is comitted to forming endospore and is now called sporulationg cell(sporagium) takes 6-10 hrs
Why are endospores heat resistant? presence of dipicolinic acid combined with calcium ions; which help dehydrate endospore. Also core contains small proteins that help protect DNA from drying and damage.
How do you destroy a endospore? temp @ least 112'C(autoclave) because they are resistant to drying, uv light, strong acids and bases
to break dormancy of the endospore good condition for growth of cell is a must. Has to be a specific chemcal/ enviromental stimulus(amino acids/inorganic salt) along w/ inorganic salt. with water. germination of endospore
enzymes produced that degrade cortex and expose core to water, calcium dipicolinate is lost, core rehydrates, cell grows out of endospore coats. takes 1 1/2 hrs germination
Clostridium sp. are anaerobes
Bacillus sp are aerobes
based on shape cocci, bacilli, curved/spiral bacteria
cocci in pairs ex: N. gonorrhoeae, disease; Gonorrhea Diplococci arrangement
chains, streptoccus pyogenes (strept throat) streptococci
cluster, staphylococcus aureus, boils staphylococci
packet of four, micrococcus, rarley pathogenic tetrad
packet of eight, sarcina ventriculi, rarely pathogenic octad
Rods;long filaments/ branched, 1x3nm. when extremely short called coccobacilli. Med: bacilli Escherichia, Klebsiella, and proteus spp. Pseudomonas, Haemophilus and bacillus. bacilli
curved: vibrio,campylobacter, and helicobacter spp. spiral: treponema and borrelia spp. Curved and spiral shaped bacteria.
1.simple stains 2.structural staining procedure(a. capsule stain, spore stain, flagella stain) 3. differential stain (a. gram pos b.gram neg c. acid fast) staining bacteria
serves to kill organisma, preserve morphology, and anchors smear. 2 most common:1.heat, not standard willdistort bacteria morphology 2. methonal, standardized technique (preffered) fixation
smear loop,air dry,drip methonal to fix, flood w/ stain, rinse w/ water, and examine w/oil immerson @x100 simple stain
Stain blue - purple have thick layer of peptigodlycan more complex Gram-positive
Stains pink-red thin layer of peptidoglycan Gram negitave
known as gram variable, mycobacterium spp. uses carbol fuchsin( red dye driven through cell wall) heat used to soften waxes in cell wall acid fast stain
which eucaryotic organisms are photosynthetic? classification of algae
consist of cytoplasm, cell wall(usually), cell mem,nucleus,plastids,ribosomes, motichondria, and gogli bodies. Some have pellicle, a stigma and/or flgella? (most cell walls contain cellous) characteristics of algae
Range in size from unicellular(diatoms),to large, multicellular(seaweeds or kelp) algae
how do algae produce energy? photosynthesis, some use organic matter.
algae can be arranged in colonies or strands and can be found in: fresh water,salt water, wet soil, or on wet rocks
diatoms,diboflge
able to swim, associated with flagella; less often with axial filaments bacteria motility
seen by stabbing into tube of semisolid medium or by hanging drop technique motility of bacteria
generally are not motile, 50% spiral shaped and cocci
millions of organisms, apperance varies, size color shape, elevation, edge or margin of the colony, enzymatic activity on varius media. colony of morphology
What is the formation of bacterial growth? single cell 0hrs one cell, 4hr 256 cells, 8hrs 65000 cells, visible colony 12 hrs at 17000000 cells
atmosheric requirements are classified by relationship to O2 and CO2
Classifications of bacteria isolates for O2 obligate aerobes, microphilic aerobes, faculative anaerobes, aerotolerant anaerobes, and obligate anaerobes.
Organisma that grow best in higher concentrations of CO2(5-10%) canophilic
What are the nutritional requiremnts for Domain bacteria? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen sulfur, phosphate and nitrogen for growth. Some special elements like calcium, iron and zinc. Fastidous bacteria is said to be demanding of nutrients
What is the pathogenicity of Domain Bacteria? many are able to cause disease, because they posses capsules, pili, or endotoxins. Because the secrete exotoxins and exoenzymes they damage cells and tissues. tested by inoculation (Neisseria men)
What is the genetic composistion of domain bacteria?
What are unique bacteria? (do not grow in artificial media) Rickettsias, chlamydias, mycoplasmas (bacteria) but do not posses all organisms as a typical bacteria cell. Rickasettes and chlamidia have gram-neg type and are obligate intracellular Rickasettes has a leaky membrane and chlamidiais an energy parasite
obligate intercellular means the bacteria must live in a host to survive.
mycoplasmas smallest of cellular microbes, lack cell wall (many diff shapes) pleomorphio. in humans cause atypical pneumonia, genitourinary inf., resistant to penicillian, "fried egg"
Photosynthic bacteria purple, green, cyano; purple and green do not produce oxygen/ cyan do. produces oxygen then is said to be oxygenic, and if not it is called anogenic
archae disc 1977 procaryotic, related more to eucaryotes than bacteria, widely in shape, some live in extreme enviroment, posses cell walls but they do not contain peptidoglycan
taxonomy science of classification, classification, nomenclature and ID/#. Taxa: KDCOFGS
acid fast mycobacteria carbol fuchsin (bright red dye) drivin into the cell
Created by: 659316083