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VRA test

Virginia Reading Assessment

A Morpheme or meaningful part of a word attached before or after a root or a base word to modify its meaning: affix
the use of letters and letter combinations to represent phonemes in Alphabetical principle
fluent performance without the conscious deployment of attention automaticity
a free morpheme, usually Anglo-Saxon origin, to which the affix can be added. base word
discussion by a teacher, librarian or student to encourage others to read book talk
a consonant sequence before or after a vowel within a syllable, such as cl, br, or st; also called consonant blend blend
a morpheme usually in Latin origin in English, that cannont stand alone but is used to from a family of words with related meanings. A bound root (such as -fer) has meaning only in combination with a prefix and or suffix bound morpheme
any of several ways of measuring a person's ability to restore omitted portions of an oral or written message by reading its remaining text cloze procedure
The mental act of knowing when one does and does not understand what one is reading. comprehension monitoring
a phoneme that is not a vowel and is formed with obstruction of the flow of air with the teeth lips or tongue; also called closed sound in some instructional programs; English has over 40 consonants consonant
written letter combination that corresponds to one speech sound but is not represented by either letter alone, such as th or ph consonant diagraph
the sound, words, or phase adjacent to a spoken or written language unit context
inforamtion from theimmediate textual setting that helos identify a word or word group by phrases, sentences, illustrations, syntax, or typograpghy context clue
the search for meaning of an unknown word through an examination of its context, the use of a larger linguistic unit to determine the meaning of smaller unit. contextual analysis
speech sound that can be spoken uninterrupted unitl the speaker runs out of breath. (/m/, /s/, /v/) continuant
text in which a large portion of words(70-80%)compromise sound symblom rel. that have already been taught; used to provide practice w/ spec decoding skills and to from a bridge between learning phonics and applying phonics in independent reading of text. decodable text
ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound symbol correspondences; also, the act of deciphering a new word by sounding it out. decoding
a social or regional variety of particular lang. with phonological, grammatical, and textual patterns that distinguish it from other varities dialect
students who are learngin English as a second lang. ; Limtied English Proficiency ESL students (LEP )
the study of history and development of the structures and meanings of words; derivation. etymology
the vocabulary used to communicate in speaking and writing. expressive vocabulary
lang. enriched by word images and figures of speech figurative lang.
the expressive, nonliteral use of Lang. for special effects, usually through images, as in metaphor and personification. figure of speech
speed of reading; also the ability to read text with sufficient speed to support comprehension. fluency/ reading fluency
a morpheme that can stand alone in word formation free morpheme
a letter combination that spells a single phoneme; in English, a grapheme maybe 1,2,3,or 4 letters, such as e,ei,igh, or eigh. grapheme
a word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written Lang. high - frequency words
an expression whose meaning may be unrelated to the meaning of its parts idiom
a bound morpheme that combines with base words to indicate tense, number, mood person, or gender inflection
pitch level of the voice intonation
when spelling of a word is not known, the writer spells its as best they know how, also called "temporary spelling" or developmental spelling" inventive spelling
strategy by Donna Ogle for identifying purpose for reading expository text. graphic organizer prompts- What I know- (K), What I want to Know - (W), What I have Learned - (L) KWL
an approach to lang. learning in which students' oral compositions are transcribed and used as material of instruction for reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Lang. Experience Approach (LEA)
Students with Limited English Proficiencies , ESL students LEP students
that part of literature-based reading program in which students meet to discuss books they are reading independently. (usually same author , title, or titles with common theme literature circle
pertaining to an acquired awareness of lang. structure and function that allows one to reflect on and consciously manipulated the lang. metalinguistic
a pair of words that contrast only in one phoneme. minimal pair
a deviation from text during oral reading or a shift in comprehension of a passage miscue
a formal examination of the use of miscues as the basis for determining the strengths and weaknesses in the background experiences and lang. skills of students as they read miscue analysis
the smallest meaningful unit of lang. morpheme
the study of meaningful units of lang. and how they are combined in word formation morphology
having more than one syllable multisyllabic
text, usually with the structure of a story, that tells about sequences of fictional or real events and is oftne contrasted with expository text. narrative text
the part of syllable before the vowel; some syllables do not have onsets onset
a writing system; correct or standardized spelling according to established usage in a given lang. orthography
a speech sound that combines with others in lang. system to make words. /k/ kit skill phoneme
the conscious awareness fhat words are made up of segments of our own speech that are represented with letters in an alphabetic orthography; also called phoneme awarenesse phonemic awareness
referring to the nature, production, and transcription of speech sounds. phonetic
the study of rel. b/w letters and the sounds they represent; also used to describe reading instructions that teaches sound-symbol correspondences. phonics
in word recognition, a graphic sequence comprised of a vowel grapheme and an ending consonant grapheme, as -ed in red, bed, fed, or -ake in bake, cake, lake; AKA "word family" phonogram
metalinguistic awareness of all levels of the speech sound system, including word boundaries, stress patterns, syllables, onset-rime units,and phonemes; a more encompassing term than phoneme awareness phonological awareness
a morpheme that precedes a root or base word and that contributes to or modifies the menaing of a word; a common linguistic unit in Latin-based words prefix
pertaining to a vowel immediately followed by the consonant /r/, such that its pronunciation is affected or even dominated by the /r/. R-controlled
a linguistic term for the part of a syllable that includes the vowel and what follows it; different from the lang. play activity of rhyming rime
a morpheme, usually of Latin origin in English, that cannot stand alone but that is used to from a family of words with related meanings root
evidence from the general sense or meaning of a written or spoken communication that aids in the identification of an unknown word. semantic cues
the components features of the meaning of a word semantic properties
words that are known as wholes, do not have to to be sounded our to be recognized quickly, and are often taught and learned as "exception," "out-law" or " nonphonetic" words sight words
the identification of word-meaning elements, as re and read in reread, to help understand the meaning of a word as a whole; morphmeic analysis. structural analysis
a morpheme, added to a root or base word, that often changes the word's part of speech and that modifies its meaning suffix
unit of pronunciation that is organized around the vowel; it may or may not have consonants before or after the vowel syllable
evidence from knowledge of the rules and patterns of lang. that aids in the identification of an unknown word from the way it is used in a grammatical construction syntactic cue
the rule system governing sentence formation; the study of sentence structure. syntax
an open phoneme that is the nucleus of every syllable and is classified by tongue position and height, such as high/low or front/mid/back; English has 15 vowel phonemes. vowel
a spelling pattern in which 2 or more adjoining letters represent a single vowel sound (ex-ea for /e/, in bread, oa for/o/ in boat; also called vowel pattern, vowel digraph, vowel pair, or vowel team. vowel combination
Created by: bgainer
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