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Systems Phys - CH4

Balliet fall 2010

What type of molecules are able to cross the cell membrane? small lipid soluble
What allows for transport of water soluble components across the membrane? Proteins
Types of diffusion Simple Facilitated Osmosis
Types of active transport Primary Secondary
Types of secondary active transport Co-transport (symport) Counter-transport (anti-port)
Diffusion is proportional to what three factors? 1. Surface area 2. Concentration gradient 3. Number & size of openings
What lipid soluble molecules cross the membrane by simple diffusion? Carbon Dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, alcohol
What water soluble molecules cross the membrane by simple diffusion? water, ions
Protein channels are distinguished by what two characteristics? 1) selectively permeable 2) Use gate that are regulated by electrical signals (voltage-gated) or chemicals binding to proteins (ligand gated channels)
Facilitated diffusion is AKA carrier-mediated diffusion
What uses facilitated diffusion? Glucose & amino acids
what is necessary for glucose & amino acids to enter the intestinal cells? Na
Types of glucose transporters INSULIN INDEPENDENT: Glut 1 transporter (brain & RBC) Glut 2 transporters (Liver) INSULIN DEPENDENT Glut 4 transporter (muscle & adipose)
Glut 1 transporter is used where? Brain & RBC
Glut 2 transporter is used where? Liver
Glut 4 transporter is used where? Muscle & Adipose
Net diffusion is proportional to: Concentration outside/concentration inside
What are the univalent ions Cl, K, Na
Homeostasis is determined by what equation? Nernst (for univalent ions)
Osmosis flow of water across a membrane from lower to higher solute concentration
Osmotic Pressure amount of force applied to prevent water from moving across membrane
Osmotic pressure depends on what? number of particles in a solution
NaCl yields __ particles Glucose yields __ particles Albumin yields __ particles 2 1 1
Osmolarity Isotonic, Hypertonic (water out), Hypotonic (water in)
Ions that require active transport sodium, calcium, potassium, iodide, hydrogen, chloride, urate, iron
Nutrients that require active transport glucose (& other sugars), most amino acids - to get into blood
Primary active transports what? Na-K pump, Ca, Hydrogen
Na-K pump - number of receptors for Na and K - Inside has what activity? - Main function 3 - Na on inside; 2 - K on outside ATPase Controls cell volume & maintains membrane potential
Calcium pump Pumps Ca out of cell to extracellular space to get into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (which is outside the cytoplasm) and/or mitochondria
Hydrogen pump is located in what two places? Parietal cells of stomach & distal tubules & collecting ducts of kidneys
Why is proton pump necessary in Kidneys Takes out excess H+ ions from blood --> KI to be excreted in urine
Why is proton pump necessary in Stomach H+ excreted into lumen to lower pH so pepsinogen can be converted to pepsin
Types of secondary transport? Co-transport & counter-transport
Co-transport Na goes out of cell by Na/K pump --> Na and glucose/amino acids bind to receptor site on antiluminal surface --> go into cell
Location & function of co-transport Allows glucose & amino acids to be transported into the blood from epithelial cells of small intestines & renal tubules
What ions are involved in Counter-transport Calcium, Hydrogen
Na-Ca counter transport pump - Location Most cells, esp heart; moves Na from exterior --> interior of cell and moves Ca from interior --> exterior of cells
Na-H Counter Transport pump - Location Proximal tubules of kidneys (whereas active transport of H+ occurs in distal tubules) As Na moves from lumen --> tubular cells; H+ is pumped into urine
Active transport through cellular sheets - location Intestines, renal tubule, exocrine glands, gallbladder, choroid plexus of brain
What occurs during active transport through cellular sheets? Na (gluc & Ca) goes from lumen into cell by diffusion then goes into blood, through basement membrane, by active transport
Created by: mrw2013