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ClinChem Vocab

Clinical Chemistry Test 1 Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
Accuracy How close a measurement value agrees with a true or expected value
Anabolism The constructive phase of metabolism
Anode A positively charged electrode that attracts anions (negative ions)
Antibody An immunoglobulin produced by a B lymphocyte in response to a unique antigen
Antigen/Immunogen A protein or oligosaccharide that elicits an antibody response
Batch Analysis A group of samples are analyzed at the same time for the same test
Beer's Law Concentration of unknown=(Concentration of standard/Absorbance of standard)XAbsorbance of unknown; C?=(Cstd/Astd)XA?
Calibration To determine, check, or rectify the graduation of (any instrument giving quantitative measurements) From Dictioary.com
Canalicular Within canals or small ducts
Carryover A sampling problem that occurs when remnants of a previous sample or test reaction product affect later samples
Cathode A negatively charged electrode that attracts cations (positive ions)
Cholesterol A white crystalline substance found in animal tissues and various foods, normally synthesized by the liver and important as a constituent of cell membranes and a precursor to steroid hormones
Chromatography A technique for separating similar molecules based on differential absorption and elution
Continuous flow Each sample passes through the same stream and reactions as all other samples, with only a brief washout phase between samples
Dead Space That part of a sample that remains in the "test tube" that the instrument cannot suck out
Electrophoresis A separation technique of different charged molecules in solution in an electrical field of varying potential
Eluate The liquid obtained from a column during separation; derived from washing
Endogenous Originating inside the body
Exogenous Originating outside an organ or part of the body
Hapten Low molecular weight chemical coupled to a carrier protein to become a suitable immunogen
HDL High-density lipoprotein
Hemoconcentration Relative increase in the number of red blood cells resulting from a decrease in the volume of plasma
Hemolysis Rupture of erythrocyte cell membrane causing release of intracellular contents
Hepatobiliary Related to bile ducts within the liver
Icterus Yellowish pigmentation in the blood due to increased bilirubin
LDL Low-density lipoprotein
Lipemia Fatty accumulation in the blood giving cloudy appearance
Lipid Organic compounds that are poorly soluble in water, and soluble in organic solutions such as ether
Lipolysis The catabolic degradation of triacylglycerol
Mean The mean is the sum of the control observations divided by the number of observations
Micelle Pancreatic and Intestinal enzymes digest cholesterol and the emulsified triglycerides so that they can enter the intestinal mucosal cell as an aggregate called a Micelle
Monoclonal Arising from one cell line
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
Osmometry Measure of osmotic pressure from dissolved particles in a solution
Osteoblasts Young active cells in the bone
Oxidation Combining with oxygen; increasing the positive valence of a molecule by loss of electrons/loss of electrons in a reaction; attraction of electrons produced in a reduction process at the anode
Palpation Simple technique in which a physician presses lightly on the surface of the body to feel the organs or tissues underneath
Parenchymal Part of the main structure of the organ
Parenchymal cells Epithelial liver cells that make bile, bilirubin, and proteins and perform other duties; hepatocytes
Polyclonal Arising from many cell lines
Random Access Test reactions can be programmed to occur in a variety of sequences
Random Error Error that occurs unpredictably due to poor precision
Reduction Losing oxygen; increasing the negative valence of a molecule by gain of electrons/production of electrons and a positively charged ion; reaction at the cathode
Standard Deviation (SD) The measure of dispersion of a group of values around the mean
Systematic Error Error that occurs predictably once a pattern of recognition is established; predictable errors of the same sign and magnitude
Triglyceride Any of a group of lipids that are esters formed from one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of one or more fatty acids, are widespread in adipose tissue, and commonly circulate in the blood in the form of lipoproteins called also neutral fat
Waived Tests that are very simple or pose no reasonable risk of harm to the patient if the test is performed incorrectly
Washout Water or wash solution flowing through a chamber after a sample has passed through in order to clean it out and prevent carryover
Created by: 1414395397