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HIST 3357 Exam I

Texas State / Fall '10 / Selcraig

QuestionAnswer
LATIN AMERICA (CUBA) - BACKROUND ON U.S. (3) 1) SIMPLER ERA, 2) NO MASS CULTURE, 3) GENDER RESTRICTIONS. PLOWS, MULES, SWEAT, DIRT; NOT INDOOR PLUMBING.
LATIN AMERICA (CUBA) - U.S. FACTS FACTS: SIMPLER ERA W/ FARMERS, POP EXPLOSION, ECONOMIC ADVANCES: RxR, NEW INVENTIONS: TELEPHONE, ELECTRIC LIGHT BULB, US DOMINANT IN NORTH AMERICA, US NOT ISOLATIONIST!!! HAS INFLUENCE: SOUTH AM & PACIFIC. NEVER HAD LTD/WEAK GOV.
LATIN AMERICA (CUBA) - U.S. BELIEFS THOUGHT THEY WERE IN "MODERN" AGE.THOUGHT THEY WERE "MODERN," POLITICALLY B/C OF DEMOCRACY.
CUBA IN 1890s SPANISH COLONY.
LATIN AMERICA (CUBA) - U.S. ATTITUDES MONROE DOCTRINE (SAID THEY WLD PROTECT INDEPENDANT L.A. COUNTRIES AGAINS EURO COLINIZATION). "MANIFEST DESTINY" (US SHOULD EXPAND & DOMINATE NORTH AMERICA.)
MEXICAN WAR STEMMED FROM U.S. IDEA OF "MANIFEST DESTINY."
MONROE DOCTRINE U.S. PROCLAIMS IT WILL PROTECT INDEPENDENT LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES.
1895 REVOLT CUBA, 1890s. GUERRILLA WAR AGAINST SPAIN.
JOSE MARTI LED 1890 REVOLT IN CUBA. "FATHER OF NATIONALISM." EXILED, LIVE IN U.S. FOR A LONG TIME. KILLED QUICKLY, MARTYRDOM LED TO HERO STATUS.
GROVER CLEAVLAND --> CUBA DEM. WAIT & SEE APPROACH TO CUBAN 1895 REVOLT. CONCERNED, BUT AVOIDS ALL INVOLVEMENT. PUBLIC OPINION ACCEPTED HIS STANCE, BUT YELLOW JOURNALISM WAS PRESENT AND UP IN ARMS.
YELLOW JOURNALISM DRAMATIC, COLORFUL, BUT BIAST WRITING IN 1890s, IN FAVOR OF CUBAN INTERVENTION. WILLIAM RANDOLPH HERST, JOSEPH PULITZER. PLACED PRESSURE ON U.S. TO TAKE ACTION. DID NOT CAUSE U.S. TO GO TO WAR.
WHY WAS YELLOW JOURNALISM NOT INFLUENTIAL IN 1890 CUBAN REVOLT INTERVENTION? (2) LOCALIZED, CRITICIZED.
THE MAINE 1898. AN AMERICAN BATTLESHIP WHO'S SINKING OFF THE COAST OF CUBA HELPS TO TRIGGER THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR.
WILLIAM McKINLEY --> CUBA ELECTED 1896. REP.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR CAUSES (5) 1898: 1) MAINE SINKING, TELLER AMMENDMENT, 3) SOME U.S. ECO INTEREST, 4) TRADITION (F. MEXICAN WAR/MONROE DOCTRINE/MANIFEST DESTINY), 5. TO SOME EXTENT - YELLOW JOURNALISM
TREATY OF PARIS FREED CUBA FROM SPANISH RULE.
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR AFTERMATH (5) 1) CUBA OCCUPIED BY U.S. 1898-1902, 2) ROOT AS SECT. OF WAR, 3) GUANTANAMO BASE CONSTRUCTED, 4) REED EXPOSES CAUSE YELLOW FEVER/SANITATION PROGRAM, 5) PUERTO RICO BECOMES U.S. TERRITORY W/ U.S. APPOINTED GOVERNOR
ELIHU ROOT NEW SECRETARY OF WAR AFTER SPANISH AMERICAN WAR.
PLATT AMMENDMENT GAVE U.S. THE RIGHT TO INTERVENE INTO CUBA'S INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT AFTER THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR. SEEMED TO CONTRADICT THE TELLER AMENDMENT PASSED BEFORE THE U.S. WENT TO WAR AGAINST SPAIN.
TELLER AMENDMENT SAID THAT THE U.S. DESIRED NO TERRITORY AS A REASON FOR GOING TO WAR AGAINST SPAIN ON THE SIDE OF CUBA.
GUANTANAMO ACQUIRED BY U.S. VIA LEASE IN THE AFTERMATH OF SPANISH AMERICAN WAR. CHEAP PAYMENTS. U.S. CONSTRUCTS MILITARY BASE.
WALTER REED AMERICAN DOCTOR WHO DISCOVERED WIDESPREAD YELLOW FEVER IN CUBA IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR. DISCOVERED MOSQUITOS AS CARRIERS. SPARKED U.S. SANITATION CAMPAIGN CLEANING STAGNANT WATER.
PUERTO RICO NO FIGHTING ON THE ISLAND. IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR, SPAIN CEDES THE TERRITORY TO THE U.S. IT BECOMES A U.S. TERRITORY, NOT A STATE; SUBORDINATE TO U.S. GOV. U.S. GOVERNOR APPOINTED. INSULAR CASES TRIED AT SUPREME COURT.
INSULAR CASES THE U.S. SUPREME COURT RULED THE PEOPLE OF PUERTO RICO DID NOT HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS AS AMERICAN CITIZENS. THEIR TERRITORY STATUS WAS DISTINCT.
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, EARLY 1890s SPANISH COLONY WITH A SMALL REBELLION LED BY EMILIO AGUINALDO V. SPANISH CONTROL. THE REBELLION QUICKLY FIZZLED, AND ITS LEADER WAS EXILED.
EMILIO AGUINALDO LED SMALL REBELLION IN THE PHILIPPINES IN THE EARLY 1890s. WAS FORCIBLY EXILED AFTER IT DISSOLVED.
PHILIPPINES IN SPANISH AMERICAN WAR, 1898 U.S. SENT NAVAL FLEET THERE, COMMANDED BY ADM. GEORGE DEWEY, TO DEFEAT SPAIN. OVERWHELMINGLY QUICK U.S. VICTORY.
ADMIRAL GEORGE DEWEY COMMANDED U.S. NAVAL FLEET IN PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR IN 1898. BECAME A CELEBRATED WAR HERO.
WHY WAS THE TREATY OF PARIS CONTROVERSIAL IN THE PHILLIPENES? U.S. DECIDED TO PURCHASE THE PHILIPENE ISLANDS FROM SPAIN AFTER THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR. IMPERIALIST V. STAUNCHLY ANTI-IMPERIALIST VIEWS.
4 U.S. IMPERIALISTS WILLIAM McKINLEY (CURRENT PRESIDENT), THEODORE ROOSEVELT (WIDELY KNOWN), ALFRED THAYER MAHAN (NAVY OFFICER/WRITER), HENRY CABOT LODGE (POLITICIAN/CLOSE TO ROOSEVELT).
IMPERIALIST STANCE IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR (4 REASONS PRO-ToP) 1. FILIPINOS UNFIT FOR SELF GOVT. 2) SENSE OF PATERNALISM --> FILIPINOS. 3) ECONOMIC BENEFITS...WE COULD SELL OUR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS TO THEM. 4) FILIPINOS "COULD NOT SUSTSAIN THEIR INDEPENDENCE" AGAINST IMPERIALIST EUROPEAN NATIONS;WORSE TREATMENT
3 ANTI-IMPERIALISTS WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN (POLITICIAN), ANDREW CARNEGIE (POWERFUL, BIG BIZ), JANE ADDAMS (WELL-KNOWN REFORMER WHO EST. SETTLEMENT HOUSES)
ANTI-IMPERIALIST STANCE IN THE AFTERMATH OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR (3 REASONS ANTI-ToP) 1. PHILLIPINES ACQUISITION A "BETRAYAL OF U.S. IDEALS." 2) U.S. WOULD ALIENATE FILIPINO NAITIVES, 3) NON-WHITE PPL WOULD "BE A DRAG TO THE U.S." THEY HAD A NEGATIVE PERCEPTION OF THE VALUE OF THE PHILLIPINES
QUOTE - HENRY CABOT LODGE - 1895 "Modern movement...great nations rapidly absorbing for their future expansion and their present defense all the waste places of the earth. movement makes for civilizatioN & the advancement of the race...the u.s. must not fall out of the line of march."
QUOTE - THEODORE ROOSEVELT - 1897 - IMPERIALIST "All the great masterful races have been fighting races...The minute a race loses hard fighting virtues... no matter what else it may retain, OR how skilled in commerce, finance, science or art, it has lost its proud right to stand as equal of the best."
QUOTE - ALBERT BEVERIDGE - 1900 - IMPERIALIST "God has not been preparing the English-speaking…peoples for a thousand years for nothing but vain and idle self-admiration. No! He has made us the master organizers of the world to establish systems where chaos reigns..."
QUOTE - WILLIAM McKINLEY - IMPERIALIST "We could not give them back to Spain…there was nothing left for us to do BUT...educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellow-men for whom Christ also died."
QUOTE - SENATOR HOAR, R. MASS - ANTI-IMPERIALIST "You have no right [to] impose on an unwilling people your Declaration of Independence and your Constitution and your notions of freedom and notions of what is good."
QUOTE - MARK TWAIN'S FRESH LYRICS "Mine eyes have seen the orgy of the launching of the sword /He is searching out the hoardings where the strangers' wealth is stored /He has loosed his fateful lightning, and with woe and death has scored /His lust is marching on."
QUOTE - MARK TWAIN "THE WAR PRAYER" “O Lord our God, help us to…blast their hopes, blight their lives, make heavy their steps, water their way with their tears, stain the white snow with the blood of their wounded feet! We ask it, in the spirit of love… Amen.”
WHY THE TREATY OF PARIS WAS RATIFIED (IMPERIALISTS V. ANTI-IMPERIALISTS) 1) IMPERIALISTS SMEARED "AUNTIES" AS "UNAMERICAN, "UNPATRIOTIC," CALLED THEM "SISSIES," "WEAKLINGS," & "WOMEN." 2) WILLIAM JENNINGS-BRYAN, DEM, FLIPPED TO SUPPORT THE TREATY, BRINGING OTHER DEMS W/ HIM.
FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR 1899 AFTERMATH OF ToP RATIFICATION: EMILIO AGUINALDO LED A BRAND NEW WAR FOR POWER. U.S. SENDS ARMY; GUERILLA WAR ENSUES. U.S. ARMY UNREADY; USES MASACCRES/ATROCITIES IN RESPONSE. BRUTALITY INFLICTED UPON "BRAINLESS MONKEYS," WHO "JUST DIDN'T UNDERSTAND."
ELIHU ROOT --> PHILIPPINES APPOINTED AS U.S. SECRETARY OF WAR AFTER ToP. ASKED TO DEV. LEGAL SYST. THERE. HE APPOINTS TAFT AS THEIR GOVERNOR. TAFT IS A PRIOR JUDGE W/ NO KNOWLEDGE OF FILIPINO CULTURE/TRAD/LANGUAGE/HISTORY.
WILLIAM H. TAFT APPOINTED BY ELIHU ROOT AS THE 1ST U.S. GOVERNOR OF THE PHILIPPINES. A PRIOR JUDGE, W/ KNOW KNOWLEDGE OF FILIPINO HIST/CULTURE/LANG/TRAD. BECOMES A FAMOUS IMPERIALIST AFTER SERVING SEVERAL YEARS ON THE ISLANDS.
LATIN AMERICA 1901-1920 (PANAMA BACKGROUND) U.S. WANTED TO BUILD A CANAL TO UNITE THE ATL/PAC.
COLUMBIA-3 V. NICARAGUA-2 1901-1920 COLUMBIA: 1) SHORTER ROUTE, 2) MORE LEVEL, 3) SMALL PORT CITIES @ ATL/PAC COASTS. NICARAGUA: 1) CHEAPER CONSTRUCTION DUE TO COLUMBIAN TIES W/ FRANCE, 2) BIG LAKE WOULD MAKE CANAL UNNECESSARY.
McKINLEY PRESIDENT OF U.S. 1890s
PHILIPPE BUNAU-VARILLA FRENCH LOBBIEST DURING McKINLEY PRESIDENCY IN 1890s. COMES TO U.S. TO PUSH COLUMBIAN ROUTE-ALTERNATIVE.
JOHN HAY McKINLEY'S SECRETARY OF STATE IN 1890s. NEGOTIATES TREATY w/ COLUMBIA TO BUILD CANAL. COLUMBIAN LEGISLATURE REJECTED THE TREATY B/C THEY WANTED MORE $$$.
THEODORE ROOSEVELT 1901-1908 BECOMES PRESIDENT AFTER McKinley ASSASSINATION. [1898 ROUGH RIDER, ELECTED GOV. 1898, VP 1900, PRESIDENT 1901.] PUSHES PANAMA INDEPENDANCE 1903; SENDS AM. BATTLESHIP SHOWING A. F.P. SUPPORT OF PANAMA. NO BLOODSHED FROM ALREADY WEAK COLUMBIA.
HAY - BUNAU-VARILLA TREATY 1) FRENCH COMPANY EARNS 40m, 2) U.S. GETS TO BUILD AND MANAGE CANAL, 3) U.S. WILL PAY RENTAL PAYMENTS TO PANAMA. [NO PANAMANIANS WERE INVOLVED IN THE TREATY.]
SENTIMENT IN AFTERMATH OF PANAMA CANAL CONSTRUCTION ROOSEVELT PROUD. BUT CRITICS HEARST AND WOODROW WILSON CONVINCED T.R. TOO POWER HUNGRY. ROOSEVELT DENOUNCES WILSON AND VICE VERSA; NOW THEY ARE RIVALS. HEARST: "FOUL PLAY IN U.S. POLITICS."
ROOSEVELT COROLLARY CTRL AM/CARIBBEAN: POOR/RURAL/AG GOVTS HAD LOANS FROM U.S./EUROPE FOR THEIR INDUSTRIALIZATION. POLICIES FAILED & LOANS WENT UNPAID. THE GOVTS BECAME DEBT-RIDDEN. ROOSEVELT ANNOUNCES U.S. RIGHT TO INTERVENE/CONTROL DEBTOR-COUNTRIES' ECO POLICIES.BLOODLESS!
BIG STICK POLICY NICKNAME FOR THEODORE ROOSELTS' "ROOSEVELT COROLLARY," DERIVED FROM HIS FAMOUS QUOTE, " SPEAK SOFTLY AND CARRY A BIG STICK." BLOODLESS INTERVENTION IN CENTRAL AND CARIBBEAN ECO/POSI.
SENTIMENT SURROUNDING ROOSEVELT COROLLARY BASED UPON THE RACIST ARROGANCE OF THE U.S.: "NON-WHITES = INFERIOR/BACKWARDS." 2) SOME CENTRAL AMERICANS ACCEPTED/APPROVED OF U.S. INTERVENTIONS, BUT THEY WERE GENERALLY UPPER CLASS ELITES WHO SAW THEMSELVES AS "MORE WHITE"/EUROPEANS.
DIAZ LEADER OF MEXICI LATE 19TH/EARLY 20TH. PRO -AMERICAN, SUPPORTED BIG BIZ, ALLOWED ENTRY OF U.S. RxR.
MADERO 1910 REVOLUTION LEADER; SUCCESSFULLY OVERTHROWS DIAZ.
TAFT R. PRESIDENT IN 1910. CAUTIOUS OF NEW MEXICAN LEADER, MADERO, WHO JUST OVERTHREW DIAZ.
LANE WILSON AMERICAN AMBASSADOR IN MEXICO AT THE TIME OF THE 1910 MEXICAN REVOLUTION. TAKES CRITICAL OPPOSITION VIEW AGAINST NEW LEADER, MADERO. PUBLICLY IMPLIES HIS VIEWPOINT IS THE OFFICIAL U.S. POSITION, ALTHOUGH TAFT IS NOT SO ANTAGONISTIC.
HUERTA OVERTHROWS MADERO, WHO IS DISLIKED BY LANE WILSON, THE U.S. AMBASSADOR.
WOODROW WILSON'S FEELINGS --> MEXICO MUST CONFRONT HUERTA, WHOM HE DISLIKES FOR HIS "THUG-LIKE, TYRANNICAL, DICTATORIAL," TENDENCIES. SAYS HUERTA DOES NOT REP THE MAJORITY OF RURAL MEXICAN POOR. CHANGES AMBASSADORS. HAS "[A] SINCERE DESIRE TO ADVANCE THE CAUSE OF HUMAN LIBERTY."
WOODROW WILSON'S STANCE 1. REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE HUERTA AS LEGITIMATE MEXICAN LEADER, 2) TAMPICO INCIDENT - WILSON SENDS THE ARMY TO VERA CRUZ B/C/ HUERTA WILL NOT APOLOGIZE FOR THE BRIEF CAPTURE/RELEASE OF AMERICAN SAILORS.
TAMPICO INCIDENT WHEN HUERTA WILL NOT APOLOGIZE FOR THE BRIEF CAPTURE/RELEASE OF TWO AMERICAN SAILORS, WOODROW WILSON ORDERS THE U.S. NAVY TO ATTACK AND CAPTURE VERA CRUZ, A LARGE PORT [TO IMPAIR MEXICO'S ECONOMY.].
WOODROW WILSON V. THEODORE ROOSEVELT'S FOREIGN POLICIES WILSON'S TRUE COLORS, AS DEMONSTRATED BY THE TAMPICO INCIDENT, ARE INTERVENTIONALIST/IMPERIALISTIC JUST LIKE ROOSEVELT. HIS RHETORIC ONLY SOUNDS MORE IDEALISTIC.
"PANCHO" VILLA RAIDED INTO THE U.S. ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS, STEALING / KILLING A FEW PPL. TAUNTS THE U.S. INTO SENDING AN ARMY, WHICH WILSON ACTUALLY DOES: FROM COLUMBUS, NM, TO PARRAL, MEXICO. THIS ACTION ONLY STRENGTHENS HIM. WILSON WITHDRAWS TROOPS 3 MONTHS LATER.
CARRENZA NEW LEADER AFTER THE MEXICO REVOLUTION
1914 WWI ALLIES GB/ FRA/ RUS/ IT
1914 WWI CENTRAL POWERS GER/ AUS-HUN/ OTTOMAN EMPIRE
U.S. PRESIDENT AND ADVISORS IN 1914 WOORDROW WILSON (D), WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN (D), COLONEL EDWARD HOUSE
WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN SECRETARY OF STATE IN 1914, AT THE BEGINNING OF WWI IN EUROPE.
COLONEL EDWARD HOUSE CLOSE FRIEND OF WOODROW WILSON IN 1914, AT THE BEGINNING OF WWI IN EUROPE. NO OFFICIAL POSITION, BUT PLENTY OF POWERFUL ADVICE. NOT A MILITARY PERSON. "COLONEL" IS A NICKNAME.
NEUTRALITY 1914 POLICY SUPPORTED BY WILSON, BRYAN, HOUSE. 1) THE US. HAS NOT BEEN ATTACKED, 2) ALLIES AND CTRL POWERS FIGHTING FOR SELFISH/IMPERIALISTIC REASONS, 3) GOING TO WAR MAY CAUSE DOMESTIC UNREST AMIDST U.S. ETHNIC GRPS, 4) U.S. SHOULD MEDIATE PEACE!!
PERAMETERS OF U.S. TRADE UNDER 1914 NEUTRALITY POLICY AMERICAN BUSINESSES COULD TRADE W/ COUNTRIES AT WAR: GUNS/STEEL/OIL/FOOD/ETC...AND THE U.S. DOES TRADW OVERWHELMINGLY W/ ALLIES!!
3 REASONS U.S. TRADES HEAVILY W/ ALLIES 1. GEOGRAPHIC POSITION. 2) CULTURAL CONNECTION (BIG BIZ WASPS). 3) BRITISH NAVAL BLOCKADE MAKES GER TOUGH TO REACH.
5 EVENTS CHALLENGING WILSON F.P. 1914-1917 INVASION OF NEUTRAL BELGIUM, 2) LUSITANIA SINKING, 3) ATROCITY STORIES, 4) PREPAREDNESS, 5) 1916 ELECTION
BELGIUM 1914-1917 A NEUTRAL COUNTRY INVADED BY GERMANY. 1ST EVENT CHALLENGING WILSON F.P. STRIKES OUTRAGE AMONG AMERICANS, TURNING SOME AGAINST GERMANS.
LUSITANIA BRITISH PASSENGER SHIP DILIBERATELY SUNK BY GERMAN SUBS. UNARMED CIVILIANS KILLED, INCLUDING SOME AMERICANS. OUTRAGED AMERICANS WHO FELT SUBMARINE WARFARE "DISHONERABLE, IMMORAL, & UNCHRISTIAN."
BRYAN'S 2 REQUESTS OF WILSON POST LUSITANIA SINKING, BRYAN ASKED WILSON TO 1) CONDEMN GER FOR LUSITANIA SINKING, 2) CODEMN BRITIAN FOR THEIR BLOCKADE OF GER. --> WILSON REJECTS HIS ADVICE. -->BRYAN RESIGNS
ROBERT LANSING SELECTED BY WILSON AS NEW U.S. SECT. STATE AFTER BRYAN RESIGNS. BOTH SHARE PRO-ALLY STANCE. WILSON ONLY DENOUNCES GER. IN 1915, LANSING PROPOSES AM. BANKS SHLD ISSUE LOANS TO ALLIES, ALLOWING FURTHER PURCHASE OF AM. GOODS.
ATROCITY STORIES 1914-17 PUBLISHED BY CULTURALLY-BIASED WASP NEWSPAPER OWNERS IN THE U.S. SAID GER ARMY HAD CONDUCTED "BARBARIC MASACCRES" AGAINST CIVILIANS, PURPOSEFULLY, BY GOVT ORDER.
PREPAREDNESS LED BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT
PREPAREDNESS CRITIC WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN FELT THAT IF THE U.S. BUILDS UP ITS MILITARY, ETC., THE U.S. WILL BE "SUCKED INTO THE WAR."
1916 ELECTION WILSON BARELY RE-ELECTED. CAMPAIGN SLOGAN: "HE KEPT US OUT OF WAR."
1917 TURNING POINTS 1) ZIMMERMAN NOTE, 2) GER FULLSCALE SUB WARFARE, 3) U.S. DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY
ZIMMERMAN NOTE TELEGRAM FROM GER TO MEX, URGING THEM TO ATTACK THE U.S., AND PROMISING GER WOULD SIDE W/ MEX. THE NOTE WAS INTERECPTED AN PUBLISHED, AND AM. BEGAN TO SEE GER AS MORE OF A THREAT.
FULLSCALE GERMAN SUB WARFARE 1917: ONE OF THE THREE MAJOR TURNING POINTS, ALLOWING GERMANS TO SINK ALL SHIPS, INCLUDING AMERICAN VESSELS, MILITARY OR CIVILIAN.
U.S. GREAT WAR DECLARATION 3RD TURNING POINT IN 1917. PASSED IN CONGRESS W/ OVERWHELMING PUBLIC SUPPORT, 373-50 (HOUSE), 82-6 (SENATE).
3 REASONS ANTI-GERMAN HYSTERIA 1) WE'VE BEEN ATTACKED BY GERMAN SUBS. 2) GERMANY IS "MORE BARBARIC" THAN ITS RIVALS. [HALT THE HUN POLITICAL POSTERS] 3) WILSON'S IDEALISTIC 14 POINTS
THE 14 POINTS ANNOUNCED BY WILSON; 3RD REASON FOR ANTI-GERMAN HYSTERIA. "THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY." "WE ARE ONE OF THE CHAMPIONS OF THE RIGHTS OF MANKIND."
EUGENE DEBS A CRITIC OF U.S. MOTIVES FOR ENTERING WWI. FELT U.S. SELFISH, W/ POWER-ORIENTED ECO CAUSES: FIGHTING FOR BIG BIZ PROFITS, SEEKING RTN ON LOANS EXTENDED TO ALLIES. KNEW AMERICAN BANKS WOULD BE BANKRUPT IF GER WON.
TRENCH WARFARE 1917-18 ALLIES & CTRL POWERS BUILT HUNDREDS OF MILES OF THESE, FORTIFYING THEM FOR BATTLES FOUGHT IN FRANCE.
ALLIED ATTACK CAUSES GERMAN SURRENDER IN 1918. GERMANS RETREAT SOMEWHAT, WHICH IS A HUGE PSYCHOLOGICAL BLOW, LEADING TO THERE SURRENDER.
VERSAILLES CONFERENCE FRA 1919. WILSON VISITS PERSONALLY, TO PLACE HIS 14 POINTS INTO THE TREATY. TAKES HOUSE AND LANSING, ALSO.
VERSAILLES TREATY (7) MOSTLY WRITTEN BY THE BIG FOUR: 1) OPEN NEGOTIATIONS, 2) FREEDOM OF THE SEAS, 3) ARMAMENTS REDUCTION, 4) LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 5) SELF DETERMINATION, 6) REPARATIONS, 7) 'WAR GUILT' CLAUSE
THE BIG FOUR UNITED STATES / GREAT BRITAIN / FRANCE / ITALY
THE 14 POINTS WILSON'S IDEALISTIC PLATFORM WHICH HE ALSO WISHED TO INCLUDED IN THE VERSAILLES TREATY.
OPEN NEGOTIATIONS ONE OF WILSON'S 14 POINTS. SINCE THE BIG FOUR MAINLY HANDLED VERSAILLES TREATY NEGOTIATIONS, THIS DIDN'T FULLY HAPPEN.
FREEDOM OF THE SEAS ONE OF WILSON'S 14 POINTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE VERSAILLES TREATY; FAILS. REJECTED BY THE BRITISH.
ARMAMENTS REDUCTION ONE OF WILSON'S 14 POINTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE VERSAILLES TREATY; FAILS. BRITAIN AND FRANCE REFUSED TO COMPLY. ONLY THE CENTRAL POWERS WERE FORCED TO REDUCE THEIR MILITARIES.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS A NEW ORGANIZATION TO RESOLVE FUTURE DISPUTES/WAR. WILSON WANTED TO AVOID POWER POLITICS, TO BALANCE NATIONALISM. SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED IN VERSAILLES TREATY.
SELF DETERMINATION (IN EUROPE, POLAND, JAPAN/CHINA, COLONIES) THE IDEA THAT PPL SHOULD BE FREE TO CREATE THEIR OWN GOVT./BALANCE OUT NATIONALISM. EUROPE) SUCCESS; BOUNDARIES RE-DRAWN. POLAND CREATED! JAP/CHI) WILSON COMPROMISES W/ STUBBORN JAP, WHO KEEPS MOST OF THE POWER. COLONIES) BECOME "MANDATES" OF THE LEAGUE.
MANDATES CENTRAL POWERS OWNED MANY COLONIES WHOSE CONTROL WAS DISCUSSED IN THE VERSAILLES CONFERENCE. IT WAS DECIDED THAT THEY WOULD BE CALLED "MANDATES," CONTROLLED BY THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS...WHO IN TURN GAVE THEM TO GB/FRA, WHO RAN THEM LIKE COLONIES.
REPARATIONS MONEY GERMANY WAS SUPPOSED TO PAY THE WINNERS. NOT SUPPORTED BY WILSON. BRITAIN/FRANCE PRESSURED; AND WILSON COMPROMISES BY ASKING SOME REPARATIONS FROM GERMANY.
'WAR GUILT' CLAUSE GERMANY WAS BLAMED FOR BEGINNING THE WAR. WILSON DID NOT SUPPORT THIS.
WILSON'S FEELINGS ABOUT THE VERSAILLES TREATY ALTHOUGH ALL 14 POINTS WERE NOT INCLUDED, HE SIGNED AND ENDORSED IT. HE WAS SATISFIED WITH WHAT HE HAD ACHIEVED IN EUROPE RE: SELF DETERMINATION/CREATION OF POLAND. HOWEVER, HE BROKE HIS FRIENDSHIP W/ HOUSE @ THE CONFERENCE, AND BECAME ISOLATED.
U.S. RATIFICATION OF VERSAILLES TREATY NEEDED 2/3 OF SENATE MAJORITY. DEMS VOTE Y B/C WILSON ALSO DEM. REPS LIKE LODGE WANT AMENDMENTS, ESP. TO ARTICLE X.
HENRY CABOT LODGE A POWERFUL, LONGSTANDING SENATOR WHO LEADS THE REPUBLICANS IN A FIGHT AGAINST THE RATIFICATION OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY. IMPERIALIST. INTERRENTIONIST. "I HAVE ALWAYS LOVED ONE FLAG...[I AM] UNVILLING TO SHARE WITH A MONGREL BAN"
ARTICLE X DELT W/ THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. REPS WANTED IT AMMENDED BEFORE THEY WOULD CONSENT TO RATIFICATION OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY. WANTED TO DOWNPLAY U.S. INVOLVEMENT. WANTED U.S. TO TAKE UNILATERAL STANCE, W/ ALMOST NO CONNECTIONS THIS "WEAK" BODY.
IRRECONCILABLES AN ISOLATED GROUP (NOT A POLITICAL PARTY), INCLUDING WILLIAM BORAH, WHO WERE TOTALLY AGAINST RATIFICATIONS OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY. CONSIDERED IT TOO EVIL.
WILLIAM BORAH A PROMINENT IRRECONCILABLE WHO BELIEVED THE VERSAILLES TREATY UTTERLY EVIL.
WILSONIAN REBUTTAL
VERSAILLES CONFERENCE FRA 1919. WILSON VISITS PERSONALLY, TO PLACE HIS 14 POINTS INTO THE TREATY. TAKES HOUSE AND LANSING, ALSO.
VERSAILLES TREATY (7) MOSTLY WRITTEN BY THE BIG FOUR: 1) OPEN NEGOTIATIONS, 2) FREEDOM OF THE SEAS, 3) ARMAMENTS REDUCTION, 4) LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 5) SELF DETERMINATION, 6) REPARATIONS, 7) 'WAR GUILT' CLAUSE
THE BIG FOUR UNITED STATES / GREAT BRITAIN / FRANCE / ITALY
THE 14 POINTS WILSON'S IDEALISTIC PLATFORM WHICH HE ALSO WISHED TO INCLUDED IN THE VERSAILLES TREATY.
OPEN NEGOTIATIONS ONE OF WILSON'S 14 POINTS. SINCE THE BIG FOUR MAINLY HANDLED VERSAILLES TREATY NEGOTIATIONS, THIS DIDN'T FULLY HAPPEN.
FREEDOM OF THE SEAS ONE OF WILSON'S 14 POINTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE VERSAILLES TREATY; FAILS. REJECTED BY THE BRITISH.
ARMAMENTS REDUCTION ONE OF WILSON'S 14 POINTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE VERSAILLES TREATY; FAILS. BRITAIN AND FRANCE REFUSED TO COMPLY. ONLY THE CENTRAL POWERS WERE FORCED TO REDUCE THEIR MILITARIES.
LEAGUE OF NATIONS A NEW ORGANIZATION TO RESOLVE FUTURE DISPUTES/WAR. WILSON WANTED TO AVOID POWER POLITICS, TO BALANCE NATIONALISM. SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED IN VERSAILLES TREATY.
SELF DETERMINATION (IN EUROPE, POLAND, JAPAN/CHINA, COLONIES) THE IDEA THAT PPL SHOULD BE FREE TO CREATE THEIR OWN GOVT./BALANCE OUT NATIONALISM. EUROPE) SUCCESS; BOUNDARIES RE-DRAWN. POLAND CREATED! JAP/CHI) WILSON COMPROMISES W/ STUBBORN JAP, WHO KEEPS MOST OF THE POWER. COLONIES) BECOME "MANDATES" OF THE LEAGUE.
MANDATES CENTRAL POWERS OWNED MANY COLONIES WHOSE CONTROL WAS DISCUSSED IN THE VERSAILLES CONFERENCE. IT WAS DECIDED THAT THEY WOULD BE CALLED "MANDATES," CONTROLLED BY THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS...WHO IN TURN GAVE THEM TO GB/FRA, WHO RAN THEM LIKE COLONIES.
REPARATIONS MONEY GERMANY WAS SUPPOSED TO PAY THE WINNERS. NOT SUPPORTED BY WILSON. BRITAIN/FRANCE PRESSURED; AND WILSON COMPROMISES BY ASKING SOME REPARATIONS FROM GERMANY.
'WAR GUILT' CLAUSE GERMANY WAS BLAMED FOR BEGINNING THE WAR. WILSON DID NOT SUPPORT THIS.
WILSON'S FEELINGS ABOUT THE VERSAILLES TREATY ALTHOUGH ALL 14 POINTS WERE NOT INCLUDED, HE SIGNED AND ENDORSED IT. HE WAS SATISFIED WITH WHAT HE HAD ACHIEVED IN EUROPE RE: SELF DETERMINATION/CREATION OF POLAND. HOWEVER, HE BROKE HIS FRIENDSHIP W/ HOUSE @ THE CONFERENCE, AND BECAME ISOLATED.
U.S. RATIFICATION OF VERSAILLES TREATY NEEDED 2/3 OF SENATE MAJORITY. DEMS VOTE Y B/C WILSON ALSO DEM. REPS LIKE LODGE WANT AMENDMENTS, ESP. TO ARTICLE X.
HENRY CABOT LODGE A POWERFUL, LONGSTANDING SENATOR WHO LEADS THE REPUBLICANS IN A FIGHT AGAINST THE RATIFICATION OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY. IMPERIALIST. INTERRENTIONIST. "I HAVE ALWAYS LOVED ONE FLAG...[I AM] UNWILLING TO SHARE [IT WITH A] MONGREL BANNER."
ARTICLE X DELT W/ THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. REPS WANTED IT AMMENDED BEFORE THEY WOULD CONSENT TO RATIFICATION OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY. WANTED TO DOWNPLAY U.S. INVOLVEMENT. WANTED U.S. TO TAKE UNILATERAL STANCE, W/ ALMOST NO CONNECTIONS THIS "WEAK" BODY.
IRRECONCILABLES AN ISOLATED GROUP (NOT A POLITICAL PARTY), INCLUDING WILLIAM BORAH, WHO WERE TOTALLY AGAINST RATIFICATIONS OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY. CONSIDERED IT TOO EVIL.
WILLIAM BORAH A PROMINENT IRRECONCILABLE WHO BELIEVED THE VERSAILLES TREATY UTTERLY EVIL.
WILSONIAN REBUTTAL WILSON WANTED THE VERSAILLES TREATY RATIFIED W/O AMENDMENTS, TRUE TO THE 1. DIPLOMATIC PROCESS. 2. DEFENDED THE TREATY AS "GOOD," EMPHASIZING NEED FOR LEAGUE & SUCCESS OF EUROPEAN SELF-DETERMINATION (POLAND!).
WILSON'S HEALTH DECLINE AT THE VERSAILLES CONFERENCE, WILSON BREAKS W/ HOUSE AND ESSENTIALLY HAS A MENTAL BREAK DOWN. HE ALSO HAS A HUGE STROKE PARLYZING HIM FOR WEEKS AFTER HE VOICES "WILSONIAN REBUTTAL." UNABLE TO PROMOTE HIS CAMPAIGN, HE IS EVEN MORE ISOLATED. WIFE & DR. LIE.
OUTCOME OF THE THE VERSAILLES TREATY IN THE U.S. SENATE THE TREATY IS DEFEATED. THE U.S. DOES NOT JOIN THE LEAGUE. EVERYONE ELSE SIGNS THE TREATY AS IT IS WRITTEN.
AMERICAN BUSINESS 1920s AMERICAN BS IS #1 IN THE WORLD: MANUFACTURING, EXPORTS, LOANS. EVERYONE OWES THE U.S. MONEY; BRIT/FRA OWE 4b EACH.
WARREN HARDING R. 1920 PRESIDENT. DOES NOT GET INVOLVED W/ F.P. ON A PERSONAL LEVEL...HE DELEGATES IT.
HERBERT HOOVER PRESIDENT HARDING'S R. SECRETARY OF COMMERCE. THIS DEPT. HAS ALWAYS BEEN WEAK, BUT HE BUILDS IT INTO A POWERHOUSE, PUSHING EXPORTS.
VIRAL AMERICAN CULTURE 1920s THIS SPREADS WORLDWIDE IN THE 1920s AS IT INFUES HOLLYWOOD/RECORDS. THE U.S. HAS A GLOBAL INFLUENCE ON ENTERTAINMENT.
WASHINGTON CONFERENCE 1920s WASHINGTON, D.C.
CHARLES EVANS HUGHS SECRETARY OF STATE IN THE 1920s UNDER PRESIDENT HARDING. THINKS NAVEL POWER DEVELOPED IN WWII SHOULD NOW BE LTD OR REDUCED. DEVELOPS THE FIVE POWER PACT.
THE FIVE POWER PACT US/BRIT/JAP/FRA/IT ALL PRESENT FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT. CHARLES EVANS HUGHS DELIVERS THIS PERCENTAGE: 5-5-3-1.75-1.75 AS THE TONNAGE PERMITTED BY EACH COUNTRY. JAPAN UNHAPPY, BUT KNOWS VIA CRACKED CODE THAT THEY'LL SUBMIT, AND THEY DO.
1920s GERMAN REPARATIONS THE NATION REISTED AND FELL BEHIND IN THEIR PAYMENTS, ESP. TO FRENCH. ***GER INFLATION = MASSIVE!! ALSO UPSETS FRENCH.
RUHR REGION FRA INVADES & TAKES THIS PART OF GERMANY, AN INDUSTRIAL/WEALTH PRODUCING REGION, AS PART OF THEIR REPARATIONS. GER EXTREMELY UPSET.
CHARLES DAWES AM. BANKER WHO ORGANIZED A GRP WHICH FORMED THE DAWES PLAN.
DAWES PLAN ORCHESTRATED IN PART BY CHARLES DAWES . 1) GER HAD TO DO ____ TO REDUCE INFLATION. 2) GER WOULD GUARANEE PAYMENT W/O RESISTANCE. EVERYONE AGREED TO FOLLOW THESE POINTS...***BUT *NOT OFFICIAL PART OF THE PLAN: AM BANKERS PROMISED TO LOAN $$$ TO GERMANY
UNWRITTEN IMPLICATIONS OF THE DAWES PLAN...AND THE AFTERMATH THE AMERICAN FINANCIAL SYSTEM IS DOMINANT. 1) EVERYTHING STABALIZES W/ THE GER ECONOMY. 2) THE FRENCH PULL OUT OF THE RUHR. 3) DAWES PLAN A SUCCESS AT THAT TIME.
FRANCE FRANCE WANTED THIS FROM THE U.S. HOWEVER, THE U.S. DID NOT WANT TO MAKE ANY ABSOLUTE GUARANTEES.
CALVIN COOLIDGE R.PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. IN THE 1920s. THE KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT IS CREATED DURING HIS TERM OF OFFICE.
FRANK KELLOGG SECRETARY OF STATE IN THE 1920s UNDER CALVIN COOLIDGE
KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT FORMED UNDER COOLIDGE'S TERM OF OFFICE, BETWEEN SECT. STATE FRANK KELLOGG AND FRENCH DIPLOMAT BRIAND. 1) RENOUNCE WAR FOR ANY CTRY WHICH SIGNS. 2) IDEALISTIC - SHOWS CONTINUITY OF WILSON'S VISION CARRYING ON AFTER HIS DEATH.
PRESIDENTS HARDING, COOLIDGE & HOOVER'S TAKE ON LATIN AMERICA 1920s-30s SHIFT FROM OVERT, BIG STICK IMPERIALISM. 1) COLUMBIA) U.S. DECIDES TO PAY $ IN RELATIONSHIP TO THE PANAMA CANAL. NO OFFICIAL APPOLOGY. 2) U.S. WITHDRAWS TROOPS FM SOME CTRYS. 3) THE US INTERVENES ON A SMALLER SCALE 4) NICARAGUA REBELLION
AUGUSTO SANDINO LEADS A REBELLION IN NICARAGUA IN THE 1920s/30s. THE U.S. MILITARY INTERVENES.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT / FDR PRESIDENT IN THE 1930s. GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA.
GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY FORMED BY PRESIDENT FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT IN THE 1920s/30s TO DEAL WITH LATIN AMERICA. 1) OFFICIALLY RENOUNCED ROOSEVELT COROLLARY, 2) PANAMA TREATY GIVING PANAMA MORE $$ YEARLY AND PROCLAIMING CLEAR SOVEREIGNTY.
MEXICO OIL DISPUTE AFTER AM. OIL COMPANIES BEGAN DRILLING IN MEXICO IN THE 20s/30s, MEXICO NATIONALIZED THEM, CAUSING AN UPROAR, SINCE AM. COMPANIES GOT PAID NOTHING. FDR SEEKS COMPROMISE & SUCCEEDS; MEX PAYS SOME $ TO AM. COMPANIES
AMERICAN TRADE IN LATIN AMERICA IN THE 1920s/30s GROWS!!! 1) LOWER TARIFFS, 2) CORDELL HULL NEGOTIATES LOWER TARIFF POLICIES W/ INDIVIDUAL L.A. COUNTRIES. FDR BELIEVED TRADE BUILT FRIENDLY RELATIONS, WHILE A FEW L.A. RADICALS BELIEVED OTHERWISE: THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY=FRAUD.
Hawaiian Islands background, 1820-1880s - Independent nation with its own government (Monarchy). Am. traders/merchants move in, & Protestant missionaries convert 1/3 of the population
SUGAR PLANTATIONS Land developers BUILD THESE IN HI. Initially Hawaiians were the workers on these, but SOON began to die out from disease. As the population declines they import Chinese and then Japanese workers.
WHITE SENTIMENT IN HAWAII 1820-1880s DISLIKE monarchy. Force governmental change, TAKING power away from the king and gave it to a new legislature run by whites. ONLY PPL WHO OWN PROPERTY MAY VOTE.
The Bayonet Constitution the king did not want this.
Queen Liliuokalani 1891 wants to assert native government. This results in dispute with the Americans living in Hawaii
HAWAIIAN Rebellion in 1893 Americans gets guns and overthrows the queen. Not much bloodshed
John Stevens US diplomat supported the coup. Queen Liliuokalani surrendered to Stevens as if it was the US government that overthrew her.
Sanford Dole president – very wealthy.
Grover Cleveland (HAWAII INVOLVEMENT) Dem- hears about this afterwards. He was unaware during. Cleveland feels that Stevens has been too aggressive and interventionist. He recalls Stevens in disgrace. He didn’t want to bring the queen back; his position is jumbled and cautious.
William McKinley (HAWAII INVOLVEMENT) R. PRESIDENT LATE 1800s. ANNEXED HAWAII UNDER A JOINT RESOLUTION, AVOIDING A TREATY. ONLY NEEDED 50%+1.
HAWAIIAN ANNEXATION 1898 brought Hawaii into the US as a territory. Successful b/C it occurred during the Spanish American war. At first MCKINLEY was similar to Cleveland, but when US was distracted by the war, he brought the vote up for annexation.
China: Manchu Dynasty PRE-1990s: AN independent nation
First American involvement in China pre 1890s Fur Traders (esp. john Jacob Asher); Protestant Missionaries not very successful
John Asher prominent fur trader in China in the 1890s
Britain & Opium War - Britain wins and gets treaty ports. Not an official colony, instead it was an economic sphere of influence. The British would control the port and all the trade that goes through the port.
ISOLATION POLICY Japan WAS also independent but they had decided to TAKE THIS POLICY AND SECLUDE from the west; FOR DECADES
Matthew Perry NAVAL COMMANDER WHO takes battleships to Japan and demands that Japan begin to trade. They accept his terms.
Opening of Japan 1854. BEGAN W/ MEIJI RESTORATION.
Meiji Restoration - Japanese decide to adopt the industrial revolution. PART OF THE OPENING OF JAPAN IN 1854.
Japan-China War 1894 Japan wins the war and gets a sphere of influence in Korea, Taiwan
Open Door Policy McKinley declares that the US does not want a colony in China and that no nation should take colonies in China. When he did this he felt he was helping China because she was too weak. He announces this to the big powers; The British agree
Boxer Rebellion All white foreigners killed. Legation – a group of embassies in the capital that had a wall around it. The Boxers siege this. This is front page throughout the world. Various countries form an army together into china and smash them.
Theodore Roosevelt _____________________
Russia-Japanese war Japan wins this war, which shocks most of Europe. There is a treaty negotiation that is mediated by the US. Roosevelt wins the noble peace prize. They get confirmation of sphere of influence in Southern Manchuria, and all of Korea.
William Howard Taft ______________________
Dollar Diplomacy Taft wants to encourage American corporations to invest in China and build them up. This angers Japan; they wanted to be the big power in Asia.
ROOSEVELT & DOLLLAR DIPLOMACY Roosevelt thought it was a bad idea because he respected the strength of Japan. He expected American policy to be pro Japanese. The conclusion about the policy is that it didn’t change much.
Sun Yatsen LEADS A Revolution WHICH overthrows Manchu dynasty. initially DESIRES pro-western policy. American powers wanted to maintain their ports, & the revolution shifts to become more critical of the west. FAILS to strengthen China.
Created by: goldmeg89