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CSET Math Vocab

Algebraic expression a collection of variable, numbers, parentheses, and operation symbols
Algorithm a general procedure for accomplishing a task
Angle a geometric figure formed when two rays share a common endpoint, named with the vertex as the middle letter (<ABC or <CBA)
Area the number of square units needed to cover a surface
Binomial an expression containing two terms in which each exponent that appears on a variable is a whole number
Chord a line segment with endpoints on a circle
Circumference distance around a circle
Compass A tool used to draw a circle
Composite number Any natural number that is divisible by any number other than 1 and itself
cone a solid figure that has one flat circular base and one curved surface
congruent figures that have exactly the same size and shape
constant a symbol that represents a specific quantity
cylinder a solid figure with two flat circular bases and one curved surface
domain the set of x values in a function
diameter a chord passing through the center of a circle (a radius is half of the diameter)
Equally likely outcomes any outcome has the same chance of occurring as any other outcome
Equation two algebraic expressions joined by an equal sign
Evaluate to find the value of the expression for a given value of the variable
FOIL Method (First, Outer , Inner and Last of two binomials) used to multiply two binomials
Formula a set of symbols used to express a mathematical rule
Function A special type of relation where each value of the independent variable (x) corresponds to the unique value of the dependent variable (y)
Function table a table that matches each input value with an output value; the values of the output are determined by the function. (ex: for the function y=2x+2, x value determines y value)
Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) the largest number that divides without remainder, instrumental when reducing fractions.
Integers Whole numbers and negative whole numbers:...----3,-2,-1, 0, 1,2,3
Intersecting lines lines that cross at one point
Interval the difference between two numbers on a scale, such as intervals of 2 or 5
Irrational numbers real numbers that can be expressed as non-repeating, non-terminating decimal: negative square root of 11, square root of 2, pi.
Least Common Multiple (LCM) the smallest number that can be divided into two or more numbers without remainder, useful when finding common denominators.
Line an endless straight path passing through two points.
Line segment Part of a line between two endpoints
Linear function equations in the form of y=mx+b; every graph of a linear function is a straight line.
mean (or arithmetic mean) commonly called the average, it is the sum of the data divided by the number of pieces of data.
Median the value in the middle of a ranked set of data
Mode the piece of data that occurs most often
natural numbers counting numbers: 1,2,3
Odds in favor (of an event) with respect to theoretical probability, a ratio comparing the probability of likely outcomes to the number of unlikely outcomes; odds against an event are the revrse ratio
Outlier a piece of data that is located away from the rest of the data
Parallel lines Lines that never intersect
parallelogram a quadrilateral having two pairs of congruent sides and two pairs of parallel sides.
Perimeter distance around a figure
perpendicular lines lines that intersect at 90 degree angles
plane an endless, two-dimensional, flat surface
point a point that marks an exact location in space, such as on a number line or on a coordinate grid.
polygon a two-dimensional closed plane figure comprised of three or more line segments named according to the number of sides they have (triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, octagon, decagon, etc.)
polyhedron a solid figure with polygons for faces (solid figures are three-dimensional figures)
prime factorization the process of breaking a number down into a product of prime numbers
prime number any natural number greater than 1 that has exactly two factors (or divisors): 1 and itself.
prism a polyhedron that has two congruent bases; all other faces are rectangles, named by the polygons that form their bases (ex: triangular prism, rectangular prism, pentagonal prism, hexagonal prism, etc.)
probability with respect to theoretical probablity, a ratio comparing the number of favorable outcomes of an event divided by the total number of outcomes of an event.
protractor a tool used to measure angles
pyramid a polyhedron with only one base with all other faces being triangles that meet at the same vertex (triangular pyramid, square pyramid, petagonal pyramid, hexagonal pyramid)
Quadratic function equations in the form of y=ax(squared)+bx+c; every graph of a quadratic function is a parabola that opens up or down
random sample a sample drawn in such a way that each time an item is selected, each item in the population has an equal chance of being chosen.
range the set of y values in a function; in probability, the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data.
rational number any number that can be expressed as a quotient of two integers and can be expressed as a terminating or repeating decimal:-5, -1.27, -2/3, -1/4, 0, 1/3,2.25
ray a part of a line that begins at an end point, goes through another point, and then goes on forever in one direction.
real numbers both rational and irrational numbers
rectangle a quadrilateral having four congruent sides and four right angles
rhombus a quadrilateral having four congruent sides and two pairs of congruent angles
scale a series of numbers placed at fixed distances; the scale of a graph should be larger than the largest piece of data beign graphed, such as a scale of 0 to 100
similar figures that have the same shape and proportional size
similar polygons polygons having congruent corresponding angles and proportional corresponding sides.
solution the number or numbers that replace the variable to make the equation a true statement
solve an equation to find the value or values for the variable to make the equation a true statement.
sphere a solid figure that has no base and one curved surface
square a quadrilateral having four pairs of congruent sides and four right angles
three-dimensional a measure in three distinct dimensions, such as length, width, and height
trapezoid a quadrilateral having only one pair of parallel sides
trend when examining a graph, it is where data increase, decrease, or remain the same over time
trinomial an expression containing three terms in which each exponent that appears on a variable is a whole number
two-dimensional a measure in two distinct directions, such as length and width.
unbiased sample a sample that is representative of the entire population with regard to income, education, sex, race, religion, age, politcal affiliation,etc.
variable a value that can change or vary, usually represented with the letters of the alphabet.
vertex the point where two of the sides meet on a polygon
vertical line test used to determine if a graph is a function; if a vertical line can be drawn so theat it intersects the graph at more than one point than each x does not have a unique y, and therefore the graph is not a function
whole numbers natural numbers and zero: 0,1,2,3...
x-axis the horizontal line on a coordinate grid
y-axis the vertical line on a coordinate grid.
Created by: LFalone
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