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# CSET Math Vocab

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Algebraic expression | a collection of variable, numbers, parentheses, and operation symbols |

Algorithm | a general procedure for accomplishing a task |

Angle | a geometric figure formed when two rays share a common endpoint, named with the vertex as the middle letter (<ABC or <CBA) |

Area | the number of square units needed to cover a surface |

Binomial | an expression containing two terms in which each exponent that appears on a variable is a whole number |

Chord | a line segment with endpoints on a circle |

Circumference | distance around a circle |

Compass | A tool used to draw a circle |

Composite number | Any natural number that is divisible by any number other than 1 and itself |

cone | a solid figure that has one flat circular base and one curved surface |

congruent | figures that have exactly the same size and shape |

constant | a symbol that represents a specific quantity |

cylinder | a solid figure with two flat circular bases and one curved surface |

domain | the set of x values in a function |

diameter | a chord passing through the center of a circle (a radius is half of the diameter) |

Equally likely outcomes | any outcome has the same chance of occurring as any other outcome |

Equation | two algebraic expressions joined by an equal sign |

Evaluate | to find the value of the expression for a given value of the variable |

FOIL Method (First, Outer , Inner and Last of two binomials) | used to multiply two binomials |

Formula | a set of symbols used to express a mathematical rule |

Function | A special type of relation where each value of the independent variable (x) corresponds to the unique value of the dependent variable (y) |

Function table | a table that matches each input value with an output value; the values of the output are determined by the function. (ex: for the function y=2x+2, x value determines y value) |

Greatest Common Divisor (GCD) | the largest number that divides without remainder, instrumental when reducing fractions. |

Integers | Whole numbers and negative whole numbers:...----3,-2,-1, 0, 1,2,3 |

Intersecting lines | lines that cross at one point |

Interval | the difference between two numbers on a scale, such as intervals of 2 or 5 |

Irrational numbers | real numbers that can be expressed as non-repeating, non-terminating decimal: negative square root of 11, square root of 2, pi. |

Least Common Multiple (LCM) | the smallest number that can be divided into two or more numbers without remainder, useful when finding common denominators. |

Line | an endless straight path passing through two points. |

Line segment | Part of a line between two endpoints |

Linear function | equations in the form of y=mx+b; every graph of a linear function is a straight line. |

mean (or arithmetic mean) | commonly called the average, it is the sum of the data divided by the number of pieces of data. |

Median | the value in the middle of a ranked set of data |

Mode | the piece of data that occurs most often |

natural numbers | counting numbers: 1,2,3 |

Odds in favor (of an event) | with respect to theoretical probability, a ratio comparing the probability of likely outcomes to the number of unlikely outcomes; odds against an event are the revrse ratio |

Outlier | a piece of data that is located away from the rest of the data |

Parallel lines | Lines that never intersect |

parallelogram | a quadrilateral having two pairs of congruent sides and two pairs of parallel sides. |

Perimeter | distance around a figure |

perpendicular lines | lines that intersect at 90 degree angles |

plane | an endless, two-dimensional, flat surface |

point | a point that marks an exact location in space, such as on a number line or on a coordinate grid. |

polygon | a two-dimensional closed plane figure comprised of three or more line segments named according to the number of sides they have (triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, octagon, decagon, etc.) |

polyhedron | a solid figure with polygons for faces (solid figures are three-dimensional figures) |

prime factorization | the process of breaking a number down into a product of prime numbers |

prime number | any natural number greater than 1 that has exactly two factors (or divisors): 1 and itself. |

prism | a polyhedron that has two congruent bases; all other faces are rectangles, named by the polygons that form their bases (ex: triangular prism, rectangular prism, pentagonal prism, hexagonal prism, etc.) |

probability | with respect to theoretical probablity, a ratio comparing the number of favorable outcomes of an event divided by the total number of outcomes of an event. |

protractor | a tool used to measure angles |

pyramid | a polyhedron with only one base with all other faces being triangles that meet at the same vertex (triangular pyramid, square pyramid, petagonal pyramid, hexagonal pyramid) |

Quadratic function | equations in the form of y=ax(squared)+bx+c; every graph of a quadratic function is a parabola that opens up or down |

random sample | a sample drawn in such a way that each time an item is selected, each item in the population has an equal chance of being chosen. |

range | the set of y values in a function; in probability, the difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data. |

rational number | any number that can be expressed as a quotient of two integers and can be expressed as a terminating or repeating decimal:-5, -1.27, -2/3, -1/4, 0, 1/3,2.25 |

ray | a part of a line that begins at an end point, goes through another point, and then goes on forever in one direction. |

real numbers | both rational and irrational numbers |

rectangle | a quadrilateral having four congruent sides and four right angles |

rhombus | a quadrilateral having four congruent sides and two pairs of congruent angles |

scale | a series of numbers placed at fixed distances; the scale of a graph should be larger than the largest piece of data beign graphed, such as a scale of 0 to 100 |

similar | figures that have the same shape and proportional size |

similar polygons | polygons having congruent corresponding angles and proportional corresponding sides. |

solution | the number or numbers that replace the variable to make the equation a true statement |

solve an equation | to find the value or values for the variable to make the equation a true statement. |

sphere | a solid figure that has no base and one curved surface |

square | a quadrilateral having four pairs of congruent sides and four right angles |

three-dimensional | a measure in three distinct dimensions, such as length, width, and height |

trapezoid | a quadrilateral having only one pair of parallel sides |

trend | when examining a graph, it is where data increase, decrease, or remain the same over time |

trinomial | an expression containing three terms in which each exponent that appears on a variable is a whole number |

two-dimensional | a measure in two distinct directions, such as length and width. |

unbiased sample | a sample that is representative of the entire population with regard to income, education, sex, race, religion, age, politcal affiliation,etc. |

variable | a value that can change or vary, usually represented with the letters of the alphabet. |

vertex | the point where two of the sides meet on a polygon |

vertical line test | used to determine if a graph is a function; if a vertical line can be drawn so theat it intersects the graph at more than one point than each x does not have a unique y, and therefore the graph is not a function |

whole numbers | natural numbers and zero: 0,1,2,3... |

x-axis | the horizontal line on a coordinate grid |

y-axis | the vertical line on a coordinate grid. |