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US History Ch18 BJU

Progressive Era (1900-1920)

Progressive movement In the early 1900’s, the idea to fight against monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice through education and more political participation of the classes.
secret ballot Progressives also desired to expose graft, this method for voting to counteract the effects of party bosses, and have direct election of U.S. senators to curb corruption
initiative allow voters could directly propose legislation, a progressive idea.
referendum allow the people to vote on laws that affected them, a progressive idea.
recall to remove bad officials from office, a progressive idea.
city manager trained professionals within local governments hired to that replaced the all-too-frequently corrupt mayoral system.
gas and water socialism government control these types of companies to reduce costs
Sixteenth Amendment (1913) the income tax amendment. It was passed because earlier the Supreme Court had created to shift the burden of taxes to the wealthy.
Eighteenth Amendment (1919) It did away with all alcohol, making it illegal. It was also known as “prohibition.”
Nineteenth Amendment (1920) It gave women the right to vote (suffrage). Women were guaranteed the right to vote after a century of conflicts.
Susan B. Anthony A lecturer for women's rights. She was a Quaker. She was a strong woman who believed that men and women were equal.
Muckrakers nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines who spent a lot of time researching and digging up "muck," They were trying to make aware of problems that needed fixing and corruption that needed cleaning. name was given by Pres. Roosevelt in 1906.
Robert LaFollette Senator from Wisconsin who ran for the presidency of 1924 on the Progressive party's ticket. Their platform called for government ownership of the railroads and relief for farmers and it lashed out at monopolies. He lost however, to Coolidge.
Eugene V. Debs Labor leader who helped organize the American Railroad Union. They struck against the Pullman Palace Car Company in 1894. The strike was put down by armed forces and he was given six months imprisonment. He would later run for president as a Socialist.
Theodore Roosevelt After being purposely placed in the "quiet" office of VP where the NY political bosses thought "Teddy" would not cause any problems, Roosevelt became pres. He was notorious for his impulsiveness and radical behavior. He used his Big-Stick policy
Square Deal The Progressivism spirit touched President Roosevelt, and his “embraced the three Cs
Hepburn Act This 1906 act was signed by Teddy Roosevelt to give the ICC the right to set rates that would be reasonable. It prohibited free passes and rebates. First time in U.S.that a government agency was given power to establish rates for private companies.
Northern Securities Case it was a holding company in 1902. The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first “trust-bust.”
Meat Inspection Act Passed in 1906 after The Jungle grossed out America. It stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. It was part of the Progressive reforms, which helped the consumer.Pure Food and Drug Act
The Jungle Upton Sinclair’s enlightened the American public to the horrors of the meatpacking industry, thus helping to force changes.
Conservation The conservation movement in America tried to preserve natural resources and stop the rapid destruction of these resources and land. It’s reached its pinnacle with Pres. Teddy Roosevelt and the founding of 1st national park, Yellowstone.
Jim Crow laws Blacks in the South were bound by the severe that segregated every aspect of society, from schools to restrooms to restaurants and beyond.
Dollar diplomacy Dollar diplomacy was Taft's foreign policy which replaced "bullets with dollars."
Plessy v. Ferguson In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in this case that “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional. Thus “Jim Crow” segregation was legalized.
Booker T. Washington Ex-slave saved his money for an education. Believed that blacks must first gain economic equality before they gained social equality. Pres. of the Tuskegee Institute . Washington believed that blacks should be taught useful skills to financial foothold.
W.E.B. Du Bois the first Black to get a Ph.D. from Harvard University, demanded complete equality for Blacks and action now.
Panama Canal US built to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic. Cost $400m. Columbians not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the US, a Panama revolt occurred. New ruling Panamanians allowed the US to build the canal.
Roosevelt Corollary The Corollary was and addition to the Monroe Doctrine. In it, Roosevelt stated that the U.S. would use the military to intervene in Latin American on behalf of Europe, if necessary.
Portsmouth Conference This was a meeting between Japan, Russia, and the U.S. that ended the Russo-Japanese War in1905. Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for stopping the fighting between those two countries.
Root-Takahira Agreement In 1908, the United States and Japan signed this agreement saying they would both honor the territorial possessions of the respective countries that were in the Pacific Ocean, and they would also uphold China's Open Door Policy.
William Howard Taft In the 1908 election, he was chosen over William Jennings Bryan to succeed Roosevelt. As president, He also brought suits against 90 trusts during his administration. Due to his lack of political skills, he helped divide the Republican Party.
Joseph Cannon House of Representive’s Speaker of House, acted as a dictator during Taft’s Presidency.
Dollar diplomacy Taft's foreign policy which replaced "bullets with dollars." In the policy, American investors would get poorer nations into debt, then have a bit of economic leverage against those nations. It eventually worked better in Latin America than China.
New Nationalism T. Roosevelt in 1912’s Progress. party platform. more active government role in economic and social affairs. continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions and the growth regulatory agencies. women's suffrage & social welfare programs (
New Freedom This was the name giver to Wilson's policy that favored the small business, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and un-monopolized markets.
Underwood Tariff (1913), This substantially reduced import fees. The lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
Federal Reserve Act It created a regulatory agency for banking with 12 regional districts. Each bank was independ. but control by the Fed. Res. Board, which was control by the public.Fed. Res. controls the amount of money in circulation through its reserves and int. rates.
Federal Trade Commission This was formed to investigate industries engaging in interstate commerce. It was created to stop unfair trade practices and to regulate and crush monopolies.
Clayton Antitrust Act Helped to control monopolies by strengthening the Sherman Antitrust Act's list of business practices that were objectionable. It exempted labor and agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution and legalized strikes and peaceful picketing.
Henry Ford He made assembly line production more efficient in his Rouge River plant near Detroit where a finished car would come off the line every 10 seconds. He helped to make cars inexpensive so more Americans could buy them.
Orville and Wilbur Wright On December 17, 1903, they flew the first airplane for 12 seconds over a distance of 120 feet at Kitty Hawk, N.C.
William C.Gorgas He exterminated yellow fever during the time of the Panama Canal. He figured out misquitos were the carriers and bred in stagnate waters.
John Dewey Philosopher/educator who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teacher’s goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
Secular Humanism Denies the existence of God and affirms the goodness and perfectibility of man.”What ever works is right” philosophy.
modernism Applied Darwinian evolution to Christianity and ended up with a system of belief that was completely anti-Christian. Rejected the idea that Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible. Bible is just a collection of stories from the Israelites.
Social Gospel This was preached by many people in the 1880s and said the churches should get involved in helping the poor. Some disagreed and didn't think that they should be helped because it was their fault they were poor. This was “Social Darwinism.”
Walter Rauschenbusch The nation’s conscience awoke to the plight of the slums, and people like this man began preaching the “Social Gospel,” insisting that churches tackle the burning social issues of the day
Benjamin B. Warfield Princeton professor that defend the Christian faith.
Bible institute Bible or church-related fields school similar t colleges.
Bible conferences Summer Gathering that feature Christian speakers in resort spots.
Billy Sunday (1863-1935) Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Laissez faire (from the French, meaning to leave alone or to allow to do) an economic and political doctrine that holds that economies function most efficiently when unencumbered by government regulation. Advocates favor self-interest and competition,
Gentlemen’s Agreement Negotiated by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1908 with the Japanese government. The Japanese agreed to limit immigration, and Roosevelt agreed to convince the San Francisco School Board that segregation of Japanese schoolchildren should be stopped.
The Great White Fleet To impress the Japanese, Roosevelt sent his entire battleship fleet around the world for a tour, and it received tremendous salutes in Latin America, New Zealand, Hawaii, Australia, and Japan, helping relieve tensions.
George Washington Carver former slave and Christian who discovered hundreds of new uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes, and soybeans.
Created by: wendyk44