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Gross III final- Raj

NYCC Gross III review for Final- Raj

QuestionAnswer
Features of the skin of the face include: Highly vascular, rich in sebaceous glands, laxity of the greater part of the skin, fixation to underlying cartilage, is elastic and thick
Because of it's fixation to the underlying cartilage, what happens to the skin of the face when it is inflamed? It is stretched and becomes very painful
what happens when the sebaceous glands of the face are blocked? acne
what are the three components to orbicularis oculi? Palpebral, Orbital, and Lacrimal parts
What is the action of orbicularis oculi? Closes the eyelid, dilates the lacrimal sac
Where is the lacrimal part of obicularis oculi? at the medial angle of the eye
where is the orbital part of orbicularis oculi? along the eyebrow
Where is the palpebral part of orbicularis oculi? Under the eyelid
Where do the upper fibres of the buccinator muscle take origin from? From the maxilla opposite to the molars
Where do the middle fibres of the buccinator muscle take origin from? From the pterygomandibular raphe
Where do the lower fibres of the buccinator muscle take origin from? From the mandible opposite to the molars
What do the three fibres of the buccinator muscles merge with? Orbicularis oris
What comprises the motor nerves of the face? Facial Nerve
What comprises the Sensory nerves of the face? Branches of Trigeminal, N. from cervical Plexus
What does the opthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve innervate? The scalp as far as the vertex, the forehead, the upper eyelids
What does the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve innervate? The upper lip, side and ala of the nose, lower eyelid, anterior part of the temple,upper part of the cheek
What does the mandibular branch of the trigeminal never innervate? Lower lip, chin, lower part of the cheek, lower jaw, lateral surface of the auricle
What is the name of the nerve from the cervical plexus that innervates a sensory component of the face? Great Auricular N.
What does the Great Auricular N. innervate? Skin over the angle of the jaw
What are the three veins of the face? Angular, Anterior Facial, Retromandibular
Which vein of the face has anterior and posterior divisions? Retromandibular
What is the common facial vein formed by? Anterior Facial and Anterior division of retromandibular
What is the major tributary of the subclavian vein? External Jugular V.
What is the external jugular vein formed by? Posterior division of retromandibular and posterior auricular v.
What do the supra trochlear and supra orbital communicate with? superior opthalmic
What does the angular vein through the deep facial communicate with? pterygoid plexus
what does the pterygoid plexus communicate with? Cavernous sinus through the emissary v.
Where can infections of the face easily be transmitted to? Cavernous sinus
What are the dangerous areas of the face and why? Upper lip and lower part of the nose because they are close to the deep connections of veins
Where is the upper territory for lymphatic drainage of the face? preauricular
Where is the middle territory for lymphatic drainage of the face? Submandibular
Where is the lower territory for lymphatic drainage of the face? Submental
What are the components of the lacrimal apparatus? Gland, Duct, Conjunctival sac, Lacrimal Punctum, Lacrimal Canaliculi, Lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct
where does the nasolacrimal duct drain to? Inferior nasal meatus
where does the parotid duct emerge from? the anterior border
Where does the parotid duct open into? vestibule of the mouth opposite to the second upper molar tooth
what is the parasympathetic innervation of the parotid duct? Post ganglionic fibers from the otic ganglion through the auriculotemporal N.
What is the nerver of the second brachial arch? Facial N.
Which branches of the facial N. are within the facial canal? Greater petrosal N., Chorda Tympani N., Nerve to Stapedius
Which branches of the facial N. are at the exit from the stylomastoid foramen? Posterior Auricular, N. to posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid
Which branches of the facial N. are in the face? Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Marginal mandibular and cervical
What does Chorda Tympani supply? Anterior 2/3 of the tongue
What nerve is lesioned with hyperacusis? N. to Stapedius
What are the unpaired sinuses? superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, occipital, ant and post intercavernous
Where does the inferior sagittal sinus drain to? Straight sinus
what are the paired sinuses? Cavernous, sup and inf petrosal, transverse, sigmoid
What is the order of drainage within the sinuses? Inferior Sagittal to straight to transverse
Where can one find the cavernous sinus? On the sides of the body of the sphenoid bone
what is the anterior extension of the cavernous sinus? superior orbital fissure
what is the posterior extension of the cavernous sinus? Petrous part of the temporal bone
What can be found on the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus? 3rd, 4th, 5th cranial nerves, particularly opthalmic and maxillary divisions
What can be found passing through the cavernous sinus? 6th cranial nerve and internal carotid artery
What are the tributaries of the cavernous sinus? from the orbit, from the meninges, from the brain
What occurs with lesion of the optic nerve? Blindness
What is the action of levator palpebrae superioris? Elevation of the upper eyelid
What is the action of Superior Rectus? Elevation, adduction, internal rotation
What is the action of inferior rectus? Depression, adduction, external rotation
What is the action of medial rectus? Adduction
What is the action of lateral rectus? Abduction
What is the action of superior oblique? Depression, abduction, external rotation
What is the action of inferior oblique? Elevation, abduction, internal rotation
Where does the opthalmic artery enter the orbit through? The optic canal
What does the opthalmic artery run within? the optic Nerve
If there is a lesion to the central artery of the retina what happens? Loss of eyesight
Where does the central artery of the retina branch from the ophthalmic artery
what does the oculomotor N. supply? All the muscles of the eye but LR and SO
Symptoms of lesion of CN III Oculomotor ptosis, lateral squint, dilatation of the pupil, loss of accomodation, diplopia, supranuclear lesion
what occurs with supranuclear lesion? Loss of conjugate movement of the eye
What do postganglionic motor fibres of the ciliary ganglion supply? Ciliaris and sphincter pupillae
Where is the ciliary ganglion located? between lateral rectus and optic nerve
Lesion of the trochlear nerve presents with what? No internal downward movement
What does the trochlear nerve supply? Superior Oblique
Lesion of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion and dilator pupillae presents with what? meiosis
what is meiosis? pinpoint pupil
what is the superior boundary of the SOF? Lesser wing of the sphenoid
What is the inferior boundary of the SOF? Greater wing of the sphenoid
What is the medial boundary of the SOF? Body of the sphenoid
What are the two structures NOT running through the SOF? Optic N., Opthalmic artery
The investing layer of fascia encloses what? 2 muscles, 2 glands, 2 spaces
What are the 2 muscles enclosed by investing layer of fascia? SCM and trapezius
What are the 2 glands enclosed by investing layer of fascia? parotid and Submandibular
What are the 2 spaces enclosed by investing layer of fascia? Suprasternal and supraclavicular
What suspends the thyroid gland? Pretracheal Layer of fascia
What forms the floor of the posterior triangle? Prevertebral layer of fascia
What encloses the neurovascular bundle in the neck? Carotid Sheath
Ansa cervicalis innervates what? Strap muscles of the neck
Superior root of ansa cervicalis is made up of which cervical branches? C1
Inferior root of ansa cervicalis is made up of which cervical branches? C2 and C3
Which muscles form the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck? Semispinalis capitus, splenius capitus, levator scapulae, scalenus posterior, scalenus anterior, scalenus medius
What are the motor nerves of the posterior triangle of the neck? spinal accessory, trunks of brachial plexus, N. to subclavius, N. to serratus anterior, suprascapular
What are the sensory nerves of the posterior triangle of the neck? Lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse nerve of the neck, supraclavicular
What do omohyoid, sternohyoid, sternothyroid and C1 fibers as branches of hypoglossal thyroid and geniohyoid make up? strap muscles of the neck
Innervates all the muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus hypoglossal N.
What two muscles lie deep to the hypoglossal N.? Hyoglossus and genioglossus
Where does the cranial root of the accessory nerve enter after it emerges from the medulla? Jugular foramen
which nerves pass through the jugular foramen? CN IX, X, XI
What two foramen does the spinal root of the accessory nerve travel through? Foramen magnum, jugular foramen
Where is the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve found? In the jugular foramen
Where is the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve found? In the base of the skull
What does the external laryngeal nerve supply and what is it a branch of? branch of the vagus, supplies cricothryroid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor
what does the internal laryngeal nerve supply and what is it a branch of? Branch of the vagus, supplies the mucosa of the larynx above the level of the vocal cord
What nerve supplies the mucosa of the larynx below the level of the vocal cord? Right Recurrent laryngeal N.
Where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve arise? In front of the first part of the subclavian artery
Where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve travel? In the groove between the trachea and tthe esophagus
Which nerve supplies all the muscles of the neck except cricothyroid? Right recurrent laryngeal N.
Where is the left recurrent laryngeal nerve given off and where does it arise from? is a branch of left vagus, given off in the thorax
Which nerve hooks around the arch of the aorta to enter the neck? Left recurrent laryngeal N.
What is the tympanic N. a branch of? glossopharyngeal N.
What does the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve form? the tympanic plexus
Where does the infra temporal fossa lie below? The middle cranial fossa
The infra temporal fossa is behind what? the body of the maxilla
The infra temporal fossa is lateral to what? The lateral pterygoid plate
Masseter, temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoid muscles are found where? In the infra temporal fossa
What are the muscles of mastication? masseter, temporalis, lateral and medial pterygoid
Origin of Masseter Muscle Zygomatic arch and zygomatic process of the maxilla
Insertion of masseter mm. ramus of the mandible, coronoid process
Origin of temporalis mm/ temporal fossa, temporal fascia
insertion of temporalis mm. coronoid process, anterior border of mandible
Origin of lateral pterygoid mm upper head- infra temporal surgace and crest of greater wing of sphenoidlower head- lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate
Insertion of lateral pterygoid mm neck of teh mandible, articular disc of TMJ
Origin of medial pterygoid mm superficial head- from the tuberosity of the maxilladeep head- from the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate
insertion of medial pterygoid mm medial surface of the angle and ramus of the mandible
Where does the maxillary artery arise? behind the neck of the mandible
What is a large, terminal branch of the external carotid artery? maxillary artery
The maxillary artery is divided into three parts by which muscle? lateral pterygoid
Where does the first part of the maxillary artery run? horizontal along the lower border of the lateral pterygoid
where does the second part of the maxillary artery run? upwards behind or in front of lateral pterygoid
Where does the third part of the maxillary artery run? in the pterygopalatine fossa
What are the branches of the first part of the maxillary artery? deep auricular, anterior tympanic, middle meningeal, accessory meningeal, inferior alveolar
what are the branches of the second part of the maxillary artery? muscular branches
What are the branches of the third part of the maxillary artery? posterior superior alveolar, infraorbital, greater palatine, pharyngeal branches, artery to pterygoid canal, sphenopalatine
The external and middle ear, auditory tube, dura mater, upper and lower jaws, muscles of infratemporal region, nose and para nasal air sinuses, palate and roof of the pharynx are supplied by which artery? maxillary artery
Where does the mandibular nerve arise from? trigeminal ganglion
What is the largest branch of the trigeminal nerve? mandibular nerve
Which foramen does the mandibular nerve enter the infratemporal fossa through? foramen ovale
What are the branches of the mandibular branch of trigeminal? meningeal, n. to medial pterygoid and tensor palati, buccal, branches to muscles of mastication, auriculotemporal, lingual, inferior alveolar
The auriculotemporal, lingual, and inferior alveolar nerves arise from where? the posterior division of the mandibular n.
the buccal nerve and branches to muscles of mastication arise from where? the anterior division of the mandibular n.
the meningeal branch and nerve to medial pterygoid and tensor veli palatini arise from where? the main trunk of the mandibular n.
Which nerve encircles the middle meningeal artery? auriculotemporal
which nerve is the lingual nerve joined by? chorda tympani
What does the lingual nerve supply? sensory to anterior two thirds of the tongue
which nerve gives off the mylohyoid nerve? inferior alveolar
what is the ONLY motor nerve that arises from the posterior division of the mandibular nerve? mylohyoid nerve
the lateral pterygoid, digastric, geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles help produce which movement of the mouth? depression
Which muscle is the main muscle that aids in depression of the TMJ? lateral pterygoid
What is the main artery that supplies the upper limb? subclavian artery
where does the right side of the subclavian artery arise from? brachiocephalic a.
where does the left side of the subclavian artery arise from? the arch of the aorta
Where is the first part of the subclavian artery? Medial to anterior scalene
where is the second part of the subclavian artery? posterior to the anterior scalene
Where is the third part of the subclavian artery? Lateral to the anterior scalene
Where is the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion located? opposite to the 2nd and 3rd CV
Where is the middle cervical sympathetic ganglion located? In front of the 6th cervical vertebra
What is the middle cervical sympathetic ganglion formed from? Fusion of the 5th and 6th cervical ganglia
Where is the stellate ganglion located? Lies between TP of 7th CV and the neck of the 1st rib
Lesser occipital, great auricular, transverse cutaneous, and supraclavicular are cutaneous branches of what? Cervical plexus
what is the cervical plexus formed from? upper 4 cervical nerves
What are the 2 muscular branches of the cervical plexus? Phrenic, some muscles of the neck
The jugulodigastric lymph node supplies what? Tonsil
The jugulo omohyoid lymph node supplies what? tongue
Origin of scalenus anterior anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the C3, 4, 5, 6
Insertion of scalenus anterior Scalene tubercle and upper surgacve of the first rib between the subclavian vein and artery
It's action is to antero-laterally flex the cervical spine, rotate it to the opposite side, elevate the first rib during inspiration and stabilize scalenus anterior
origin of scalenus medius Transverse process of axis, posterior tubercles of the tp's of the 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 CV
Insertion of scalenus medius superior surface of the first rib behind the subclavian artery
It's action is lateral flexion of the cervical spine, elevation of the first rib and stabilization of the neck scalenus medius
Origin of scalenus posterior posterior tubercle of tp's of 4, 5, 6 CV
Insertion of scalenus posterior outer surface of the second rib
It's action is lateral flexion of the cervical spine, elevation of the 2nd rib and stabilization of the neck scalenus posterior
Origin of the upper oblique fibers of longus coli anterior tubercle of to's of 3, 4, 5 CV
Origin of the lower oblique fibers of longus coli bodies of the upper 2 or 3 TV
Origin of middle vertical fibers of longus coli bodies of upper 2 TV and lower 3 CV
insertion of upper fibers of longus coli anterior tubercle of the atlas
insertion of lower fibers of longus coli anterior tubercle of TP of 5, 6 CV
Insertion of middle vertical fibers of longus coli bodies of 2, 3, 4 CV
Origin of longus capitis anterior tubercles of TP of 3-6 CV
Insertion of longus capitis inferior surface of the basilar part of the occipital bone
Origin of rectus capitis anterior anterior surface of the lateral mass of the atlas
Insertion of rectus capitis anterior basilar part of the occipital bone
Origin of rectus capitis lateralis upper surface of the TP of atlas
Insertion of rectus capitis lateralis jugular process of the occipital bone (inferior surface)
Where is the anterior 2/3 of the hard palate formed from? palatine process of maxilla
Where is the posterior 1/3 of the hard palate formed from? horizontal plate of the palatine bone
What two structures does the soft palate separate? nasopharynx from oropharynx
Tensor palati, levator palati, musculus uvulae, palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus are muscles of what? soft palate
All the msucles of the soft palate except tensor palati are supplied by what? pharyngeal plexes
Where is the palatine tonsil seen? tonsilar fossa
where is the lingual tonsil found? posterior part of the dorsum of teh tongue
where is the paryngeal tonsil found? posterior wall of the nasopharynx
Where is the tubal tonsil found? seen in relation to the auditory tube
Breathing becomes difficult when which tonsil is enlarged? pharyngeal
what forms waldeyer's ring? palatine, lingual, pharyngeal and tubal tonsils
what are teh anterior communications of the pharynx? with the nasal cavities through posterior nasal aperture
what are the inferior communications of the pharynx? with the oropharynx thru the nasopharyngeal isthmus
What are the lateral communications of the pharynx? with the middle ear cavity through the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube
The palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches are found where? in the lateral wall of the oropharynx
the palatoglossal arches contain what? palatoglossus muscles
the palatopharyngeal arches contain what? palatopharyngeus muscles
What is the origin of the superior pharyngeal constrictor? pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphae, mandible, tongue
what is the origin of the middle pharyngeal constrictor? stylohyoid ligament, hyoid bone
what is the origin of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor? thyropharyngeus from the thyroid cartilage, cricopharyngeus from the cricoid cartilage
all three pharyngeal constrictors insert where? into the median pharyngeal raphae
What is found between the upper border of the superior constrictor and the base of the skull? auditory tube and levator veli palatini
what is found between the superior and middle constrictor? stylopharyngeus and glossopharyngeal nerve
what is found between the inferior and middle constrictor? internal laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal artery
what is found between the inferior constrictor and the esophagus? recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior laryngeal artery
where is the superior meatus located? between superior and middle conchae
what opens into the superior meatus? posterior ethmoidal sinus
Where is the middle meatus located? between middle and inferior conchae
what two structures are seen within the middle meatus? bulla ethmoidalis and hiatus semilunaris
what is bulla ethmoidalis formed by? middle ethmoidal air cells
what is found at the end of the hiatus semilunaris? infundibulum
which meatus is the infundibulum found within? middle meatus
which sinuses open into the middle meatus? frontal, maxillary, anterior ethmoidal, middle ethmoidal, sphenoidal
where does the frontal air sinus open into? anterior part of middle meatus
where dos the maxillary air sinus open into? posterior part of the middle meatus
where does teh anterior ethmoidal air sinus open into? in between the frontal and maxillary air sinus openings within the middle meatus
Where does the middle ethmoidal sinus open into? above the bulla ethmoidalis within the middle meatus
where does the sphenoidal sinus open into? sphenoethmoidal recess
the nasolacrimal duct is found whereZ? inferior meatus
What is the anterior communication of the ptertygopalatine fossa? to the orbit via the infraorbital fissure
what is the posterior communication of the pterygopalatine fossa? with the middle cranial fossa through foramen rotundum, through foramen lacerum with pterygoid canal, with the pharynx through the palatovaginal canal
The posterior communication of the pterygopalatine fossa with the middle cranial fossa is through which foramen? foramen rotundum
The posterior communicatino of the pterygopalatine fossa with the foramen lacerum is through what? pterygoid canal
the posterior communication of the pterygopalatine fossa with the pharynx is through what? palatovaginal canal
what is the medial communication of the pterygopalatine fossa? with the nose through the sphenopalatine foramen
what is the lateral communication of the pterygopalatine fossa? with the infratemporal fossa through pterygomaxillary fissure
what is the inferior communication of the pterygopalatine fossa? with the oral cavity through the greater and lesser palatine canal
what is the largest parasympathetic ganglion? pterygopalatine ganglion
the pterygopalatine ganglion is a relay station for what? secretomotor fibers to the lacrimal gland
what is the vidian nerve formed by? greater petrosal and deep petrosal nerves
where does the greater petrosal nerve branch from? facial n.
where dose the deep petrosal nerve branch from? plexus around the internal carotid artery
what are the unpaired cartilages? thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
what are the paired cartilages? arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform
What are the boundaries of the cavity of the larynx? from the inlet of the larynx to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage
at what level is the cricoid cartilage located? 6th CV
What is the name for air filled spaces seen within some bones located around the nasal cavity? paranasal air sinuses
where is the base of the maxillary sinus located? lateral wall of the nose
where is the roof of the maxillary sinus located? floor over the orbital cavity
waht is the floor of the maxillary sinus formed by? alveolar processes of the maxilla
where is the apex of the maxillary sinus? extends into the zygomatic process of the maxilla
where does the ostium of the maxillary sinus open into? nasal cavity
recurrent cold, pain, and purulent discharge are signs and symptoms of what? sinusitis
where is pain due to inflammation felt when it affects maxillary sinusitis? below the orbit
where is pain felt with ethmoiditis? felt over the nasal bridge
where is pain felt with frontal sinusitis? over the forehead- patient will often complain of headache
where is pain felt in the sphenoidal sinus? referred to vertex and occiput
the anterior wall of the middle ear is also referred to as what? carotid wall
this acts as a canal for tensor tympani anterior wall of the middle ear
the anterior wall of the middle ear acts as an opening for what? auditory tube
the posterior wall of the middle ear is also referred to as what? mastoid wall
the pyramid of the middle ear is located within which wall? posterior wall
the medial wall of the inner ear is also referred to as what? labyrinthine wall
how might a throat infection spread to the middle ear cavity? through the auditory tube
Chronic otitis media discharge of the pus from the middle ear cavity
The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve comes from which pharyngeal arch? first
muscles of mastication, tensor tympani, tensor palati, anterior belly of digastric and mylohyoid are formed by which pharyngeal arch? first
Meckel's cartilage is a derivative of which pharyngeal arch? first
the sphenomandibular ligament is the remains of which cartilage? meckel's
the facial nerve is derived from which pharyngeal arch? second
the muscles of facial expression, stapedius, stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric are muscle derivations ffrom which pharyngeal arch? second
Richert's cartilage is formed by which pharyngeal arch? second
the upper part of the body and lesser cornu of the hyoid bone as well as the styloid process are derived form which pharyngeal arch? second
the internal carotid artery is the artery from which pharyngeal arch? third
the glossopharyngeal nerve is formed from which pharyngeal arch? third
stylopharyngeus is derived from which pharyngeal arch? third
lower part of the body and greater cornu of the hyoid bone are derived from which pharyngeal arch? third
the arch of the aorta on the left and right subclavian artery on teh right are derived from which pharyngeal arch? fourth
what is the nerve of the fourth pharyngeal arch? superior laryngeal
the thyroid cartilage is derived from which pharyngeal arch? fourth
levator palati, cricothyroid, and the pharyngeal constrictors are derived from which pharyngeal arch? fourth
the sixth pharyngeal arch is AKA as what? pulmonary arch
the ductus arteriosus is the artery of which pharyngeal nerve? sixth
the recurrent laryngeal nerve is derived from which pharyngeal arch? sixth
all the muscles of the larynx are derived from which pharyngeal arch? sixth
arytenoid cartilage is derived from which pharyngeal arch? sixth
the external auditory meatus is formed by which pharyngeal cleft? first cleft
the cervical sinus does what? disappears
the second to fifth pharyngeal clefts form what? cervical sinus
tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum and auditory tube are derivations of which pharyngeal pouch? first pouch
the palatine tonsils come from which pharyngeal pouch? second pouch
the thymus and inferior parathyroid gland are derived from which pharyngeal pouch? third pouch
the superior parathyroid glands are derived ffrom which pharyngeal pouch? fourth pouch
the ultimobranchial body is derived from which pharyngeal pouch? fifth pouch
Created by: kissukels587