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Premodern Japan

Heijo-Kyo First Heian capital built by Yamato. In 700's capital is relocated to Kyoto.
Okashi "that which make you smile" comedy writing like the Pillow Book.
Sei Shonagon Pillow Book Author
Murasaki Shikibu Tale of Genji Author
Saicho Tendai Buddhism on Mt. Hiei
Shotoku- Taishi Prince of Yamato court who established the centralised government based on Buddhist teachings.
Kukai Shingon Buddhism on Mt. Koya
Kojiki and Nihon Shoki Court mythologies, now foundational texts of Shinto.
Kaimani 'peeping toms' men looking at women to have sex with them.
Himiko Accord to Chinese texts was the first ruler of Japan, then called Wa.
Bushi/Musha Warriors from 12th C. onwards
Poetry/Waka Tanka, emaki (scroll-art), Tale of Genji considered work of Waka.
Women in Heian Social mobility, courtships, romance, Chinese poetry/language officially limited to men
Taira and Minamoto Warring families - Tale of Heiki
women Political tools for advancement e.g. Fujiwara no Michinaga, novelist were women, and women could hold property
Setuna Folk tales compiled by Hijiri (traveling monks)
Superstition Rules about everything including bathing and haircutting – sanitizing
Pure Land Buddhism Spreads among lower classes during Kamakura era and with warriors, though not as much as Zen
Miko were able to communicate with dead.
1274 First Mongol invasion in Kyushu
Yamabushi were mountain naturalists -> Shinto-ish.
Chigo young pretty boys monks had sex with once women because negatively viewed
Yin-Yang Always two sides, beginning of aware.
Hojo Masako Ruled as Shogul in early 1200's
Kegare referring to pollution one experiences after seeing or experiences violence or blood – always black or white.
Ie "household" important in warrior class during Kamakura era. Marriage becomes institution of the home between a man and woman.
Sugawara no Michizana expelled scholar who died in exile and then natural disasters started happening and the court took responsibility for his death and build monasteries and “Tenmango.” Became god of study and students still offer prayers to hi before exams.
Goke Widows after Mongol wars - fears about disrupting bloodlines develop as these women adopt children.
Buddhism Monasteries were for elites, Mts. Hiei and Koya illustrate the removal of Buddhism from everyday life. Hijiri, travelling holy men, began proselytizing to commoners and collecting money while on their trips.
Konjaku Monogatarishu Buddhist cautionary tales for women (lots of rape) from Kamakura era.
Saicho (Tendai) and Kukai (Shingon) preach personal salvation and not just state. This new belief was accelerated by the hijiri and more people begin to frequent monasteries.
Miyabi Refinement and elegance of courtliness of the Heian –
Tale of Genji best example of Miyabi refinement, also was the world’s first novel and written in Kanji for the empresses who Murasaki Shikibu was serving. The work discusses actual events/customs of the period.
Sei Shonagon Murasaki was in competition with Sei Shonagon, the author of the Pillow Book, who was serving another empress. Genji view as superior and has poems, unlike Pillow Book that is a comedy.
Aware Compassion for ephemeral nature of the world e.g. cherry blossoms. Trying to find possessiveness in negativity. This concept continues in the 18th/19th centuries in the ideas of nationalism.
Washi When Chinese merchants saw the washi paper they appreciated the beauty of it, but only as something elegant and were unable to recognize the true value behind it since they did not share the concepts of Aware within Miyabi.
Mujo Uncertainty and transientness of life that becomes a denial of reality. e.g. The tale of Heike. The uncertainly of the social period is reflected in this new idea of Mujo and promotes the ideology that brings the warrior classes to the forefront.
The tale of Heike which follows the rise and fall of Ise Taira and illustrates from its opening lines the necessary decline of all things and the end of all things is inevitable. Even though Taira defeated Minamoto once, in the end Minamoto overtook them.
Mappo decline of the Dhama age was believed to be occurring in the 11th c. and this together with the uncertainty of the age itself and therefore Mujo expands. Dreams are used as an alternative reality.
Genpei War After the Genpei was (1180-85) during which Minamoto defeats Taira no Kiyomori and became effectively the first Shogun to rule Japan. This is the transition to farming economy and the rise of military culture.
Kamakura New government was created in Kamakura and created the system of Bakufu that operated as a legal/administrative system was created to favour the warrior culture thereby further removing Japanese culture form the earlier Miyabi culture of the.
Goseibai Shikimaku Legal code called “Goseibai Shikimaku” forms judicial centre in Kamakura.
Kamakura-e Art becomes more masculine and simple, and silk replaces rice as the main good for bartering.
Zen and Pure Land becomes the warrior religion and comes from China during the Kamakura period, and Zen temples don’t take land and instead gain money through money lending. In practice, Zen Buddhism was the warrior’s religion.
Peasants in Kamakura Society becomes more lenient in regards to peasants who can now challenge things in courts in Kamakura.
Travel and changing economy With the duel capital system travel becomes more frequent and inns and entertainers develops. Monks also begin travelling more and collecting stories and recording them (Setsuwa – folk with Buddhist sense)
Mujo in Kamakura Mujo continues in this period due to socio-political instability and courtiers loose power and money and have to start teaching miyab to landlords/warriors who let the courtiers live with them in high style. Court style mixes with warrior culture.
Farming advancements Specialization occurs economically, and arms technology advances, and double cropping occurs.
Mongel War Mongols retreated and lost war to Japanese it drastically changed the way in which Japan fought in war. Because these wars with the Mongols were defensive only no new land was acquired. New fighting tactics acquired.
Why Japan Weaker after Mongol Defeat Because no new land was gained in the Mongol wars the Shogun couldn’t pay the troops and this leads to the end of the Kamakura period.
Bakufu allows two imperials lines to alternate on the throne that creates a problem of succession that divided people along the lines of who supports which imperial family.
Created by: marisakaryl



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