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Top 250 APUSH Terms

Mrs. Grieve's Top 250 APUSH Terms

What was the Virginia Company joint stock company chartered to colonize North America between 34th and 45th parallels; Investors hoped to find gold, silver, northwest passage, cure for syphilis
What problems did Jamestown encounter Dysentery and typhoid fever (swampy area) Too many gentlemen and specialized craftsmen/not enough farmers Lack of leadership Caught in Indian wars
House of Burgesses 1st legislative body in the colonies; in Virginia
Head-right system colonists received 50 acres for each person whose passage to Virginia he financed
Toleration Act of 1649 granted freedom of worship to all Christians (but not Jews) in Maryland; 1st example of religious toleration in Americas
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) revolt of backcountry farmers in Virginia against Tidewater elite on coast who were hated because of power
Mayflower Compact agreement amongst Puritans of Plymouth to abide by decisions of majority
Fundamentals Orders of Connecticut 1st constitution in colonies (1665)
Half-Way Covenant created to address the problem of too many 2nd generation Puritans drifting away from the church’s influence; required baptism but not strict following of Church
Who originally settled Pennsylvania William Penn and the Quakers
Mercantilism The purpose was to enrich the mother country of England by creating a favorable balance of trade that would increase supply of bullion (gold/silver); Colonies existed to enrich mother country
Navigation Acts/3 rules for colonial trade 1)Trade to/from colonies only on English or colonial ships w/ English or colonial crews 2) All goods imported into colonies had to pass through English ports 3) “enumerated” (certain) goods could be exported to England only (tobacco the first)
Why did slavery expand in the late 1600s and early 1700s 1) reduced migration from England b/c wages were rising there 2) Planters desire for dependable work forces that couldn’t revolt (like Bacon did) 3) Desire for cheaper labor (as prices of tobacco, rice, and indigo fell, planters had to cut costs)
Task system system in which slaves were given a certain amount of tasks to perform each day and left alone by slave masters as long as they completed tasks; used in Deep South
Stono Rebellion most violent slave revolt in history of 13 colonies; SC in 1739
What was the triangular trade 1) Manufactured goods to Africa; traded for slaves 2) Slaves to Americas/Caribbean; traded for raw materials 3) Raw materials to England; traded for manufactured goods
New England economy subsistence farming (thus, no slaves), logging, shipbuilding, fishing, trade, rum
Middle colonies economy large scale farming in wheat, corn; hired laborers and indentured servants; trade; small manufacturing
Southern economy subsistence farming and large plantations (thus slaves); tobacco, rice, indigo
Paxton Boys Pennsylvania backcountry farmers who slaughtered Indians in fear after Pontiac's Rebellion scared them; Ben Franklin saved peaceful Indians that the Paxton Boys were about to murder in Philly
What was the Great Awakening An emotional religious revival during the 1730s and 1740s amongst ALL colonies
Jonathan Edwards “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
George Whitefield spread Great Awakening main ideas
What were the main ideas of the Great Awakening 1) You must repent sins 2) God is all powerful and angry with human sin 3) There are consequences for sin (eternal damnation) 4) The Bible was final source of authority, not ministers
What caused the French and Indian War French built chain of forts in Ohio River Valley to stop westward growth of British colonies; George Washington defeated by French at Fort Duquesne
What were the effects of the French and Indian War A) Attempt at colonial union (failed) B) British victory & end of French power on North American continent C) Made Britain dominant naval power in world D) End of major threats to British colonies E) Imperial reform by British—and American Revolutio
Albany Plan of Union, 1754 Ben Franklin's attempt to unify colonies during French and Indian War; failed due to lack of American identity amongst colonists
What were the causes of the American Revolution A) Ideas of Enlightenment Example: John Locke and popularsovereignty B) American discontent with British Imperial reform that resulted from expenses of French and Indian War
SALUTARY NEGLECT British policy of exercising little direct control over colonies and allowing Navigation Acts to go unenforced
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) Pontiac attacks British settlements on western frontier; upsets colonists b/c British troops used instead of colonial troops
Proclamation of 1763 a) Issued by British to prevent hostilities b/w colonists and Indians b) Said colonists could not settle west of Appalachian Mts.
Stamp Act a) Stamps to be placed on most printed paper in colonies (legal docs, newspapers, pamphlets, playing cards)b) 1st direct tax; tax on those who used the goods, not on merchants c) meant to raise $ to pay British officials in colonies
Townshend Acts Tax on tea, paper, glass, lead, painters’ colors $ raised used to pay British officials in colonies (formerly paid by colonial assemblies)
Committees of Correspondance Initiated by radical Samuel Adams in 1772 as reaction to Gaspee incident New England towns exchanged letters about British activities
Gaspee Incident a) Gaspee had caught numerous smugglers off New England coast b)Ran ashore off Rhode Island c) Colonials disguised as Indians took over ship and burned it
The Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) of 1774 To punish for destruction of private property (tea) in Boston
Suffolk Resolves called for repeal of Intolerable Acts
What was the turning point of the American Revolution Battle of Saratoga 1778
What was stated in the Treaty of Paris (1783) 1) Britain recognized independence of US 2) Western boundary of US would be Mississippi River 3) US got fishing rights off Canada 4) US to pay debts owed to British merchants
Articles of Confederation (1777) 1) Unicameral legislature 2)Each state had 1 vote 3) 9/13 needed to pass laws 4) To amend, 13/13 needed
Northwest Ordinance 1787 Set rules for creating new states in area b/w Great Lakes and Ohio River; only successful part of Articles of Confederation
What were the weaknesses of the Articles 1) Couldn’t TAX (could only ask states for $) 2) Seen as weak by foreign nations (example - couldn't pay debts) 3) Couldn't enforce laws
Shays’ Rebellion (1786) a) rebellion of debt-ridden farmers in western Massachusetts; Rebelled against high state taxes, debtor prisons, no paper $ b) Scared people, convinced many of need for stronger govt
Federalist Papers Hamilton, Madison, Jay 85 essays published to convince NY and Virginia to ratify Constitution
Bill of Rights 1st 10 Amendments to Constitution
Judiciary Act of 1789 passed under George Washington, it created the federal court system
What was Alexander Hamilton's plan to solve the nation's early financial problems a) National debt paid off and state debts assumed by federal govt (as compromise, he promised national capital to be in South along Potomac (Washington, DC) b) Got tariffs and excise taxes on wine, coffee, tea, liquor (whiskey) c) National Bank
What event dominated foreign affairs under Washington the French Revolution
Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) Washington's declaration that said US would not take sides in war between France and England (Jefferson resigns b/c of this, says we should side with France)
Jay’s Treaty treaty that brought US closer to Britain; Brits promised to remove troops from Northwest territories
Pinckney Treaty treaty with Spain in 1790s; said a) Spain recognized US neutrality b) Ended Spanish claims to southwest territories c) Gave US access to Mississippi River d) gave US access to New Orleans
Whiskey Rebellion Western PA farmers rebelled against tax on whiskey (to supplement income); showed federal govt's power
What did Washington warn of in his farewell address in 1796 a) Stay away from European affairs b) Don’t make permanent alliances c) Don’t form political parties d) Avoid sectionalism
XYZ Affair controversy in which French demand bribe from US just to negotiate ending of French seizure of US ships ("millions for defense, not a cent for trubute")
Kentucky Resolves and Virginia Resolves a) early examples of states' rights b) nullified Alien and Sedition Acts in 1790s that were seen as making national govt too powerful
"midnight appointments" term applied to John Adams' last minute appointments of numerous federal judges to pack the court system with Federalist judges; led to Marbury v Madison court case
Marbury v Madison Supreme Coirt case that established judicial review (right of Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional)
Embargo Act (1807) Jefferson's big failure; meant to punish Britain for interfering in US trade; almost ruined Us economy
What caused the War of 1812 a) impressment of US sailors by Brits b) Brits aiding Indians who attcked US c) War Hawks in Congress who wanted war (Henry Clay and John C, Calhoun)
What was the Hartford Convention meeting to discuss the grievances of the New England states during War of 1812; discussed secession until Jackson won at New Orleans
Treaty of Ghent ended War of 1812; simply maintained status quo
American system program for advancing US economic growth in early 1800s (Henry Clay) a) tariffs b) national bank c) infratsructure
Eli Whitney inventor of cotton gin
Lowell system factory system in New England dominated by female labor
What groups were part of the Second Great Awakening Baptists, Methodists, 7th Day Adventists, Mormons
Joseph Smith founder of Mormons
Transcendentalists 19th century movement; believed in emotion, civil disobedience, protesting against materialism; led by Emerson and Thoreau
Horace Mann 19th century reformer of schools
Dorothea Dix 19th century reformer of asylums
What early 19th century groups opposed slavery a) American Colonization Society (back to Africa--Liberia) b) American Anti-Slavery Society (William Lloyd Garrison) c) violent abolitionists (later John Brown)
Nat Turner slave who led violent revolt in Virginia in 1831
Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 1st women's rights convention (1848); led by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton)
Tallmadge Amendment (1819) Called for a) Prohibition of further introduction of slaves into Missouri b) Emancipation of the children of Missouri’s slaves when they (the children) turned 25 (would gradually end slavery in MO)
What was the Missouri Compromise (1820) a) Missouri admitted as slave state b) Maine admitted as free state c) Slavery prohibited above 36 degrees, 30 minutes (parallel)
Monroe Doctrine (1823) Stated that Europeans were no longer allowed to interfere in affairs of or colonize Americas
corrupt bargain (1824) deal between JQ Adams and Clay; JQ Adams got presidency over Jackson; Clay got Secretary of State
"Jacksonian democracy” Andrew Jackson's idea that common man should be more involved in political process
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 Forced the resettlement of Native Americans to west of Mississippi
Worcester v Georgia (1832) overturned Cherokee v Georgia where Cherokees denied their land; but Jackson wouldn't enforce Worcester v Georgia, with result that Indians were forced west
“nullification theory” Said each state could declare FEDERAL law unconstitutional if it wanted to--leading proponent was John C Calhoun (Jackson crushed this idea)
Why did Jackson hate the Second Bank of the US a) unconstitutional b) hated inflationary paper money c) too much power in hands of greedy NE bankers ( Nicholas Biddle)
Manifest Destiny idea that it was America's right to expand west in 1840s
What territories would the US gain as a result of its expansionist policies a) Texas b) Oregon country c) Mexican cession d) Gadsden Purchase (parts of Arizona and NM)
Steven Austin started American migration to Texas in 1830s
Battle of San Jacinto, April 1836 decisive battle in Texas' War of Independence
Sam Houston led Texas forces against Mexico; 1st President of Texas
“Fifty-four forty or fight” Polk's campaign slogan of 1844; referred to desire to annex Oregon
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Mexican Cession) 1848 ended Mexican-American War; gave US a) Mexican cession b) Rio Grande as border of Texas
Wilmot Proviso Slavery should be forbidden in new territories acquired from Mexico in war
Ostend Manifesto 1852 Pierce's attempt to buy Cuba from Spain in order to expand slavery
Walker Expedition William Walker takes over Nicaragua to expand slavery; defeated by Central American states
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1850 US and Britain agreed that neither nation would try to take exclusive (by itself) control of any future canal route
“Seward’s Folly”/ “Seward’s Icebox” Alaska purchased from Russia in 1867; called these terms
Popular Sovereignty idea of letting the people who settled a territory to decide if they wanted slavery by voting; 1st applied in Kansas
Compromise of 1850 a) California admitted as free state b) Divide remainder of Mexican Cession into Utah and New Mexico—allow popular sovereignty c) Ban slave TRADE in Washington, DC d) Adopt Fugitive Slave Law
Kansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas (IL) proposes building RR from Chicago to west across Nebraska territory; required organization of states--would they be slave or free?
Fugitive Slave Law 1854 said northerners had to return runaway slaves to south; caused severe sectionalism
Dred Scott v Sandford (1857) Supreme Court case that declared slaves property; enhanced sectionalism and effectively repealed Missouri Compromise
Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s Cabin; anti-slavery novel of 1852
Cannibals All! (1857) pro-slavery novel; said slaves were better off as slaves (taken care of)
“Know-Nothing” Party (American Party) Nativist Party of 1850s; took votes from Whigs
FREE LABOR IDEOLOGY Slaves worked inefficiently b/c they were forced to work (no motivation); free laborers worked efficiently b/c they worked for $
“King Cotton Diplomacy” the South’s idea that b/c cotton was so important to the British and French, it (the South) could gain official recognition from those countries and receive direct aid for the Southern war effort
contraband enemy property that could be “seized”; used as excuse to seize slaves prior to Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln’s declaration that freed all slaves in those states that were in rebellion (encouraged border states to free slaves and compensate slave owners
13th Amendment emancipated EVERY slave in the USA
Homestead Act 160 acres of free land in Great Plains as long as you farmed it for 5 years
Morrill Land Grant Act allowed states to sell federal land to establish agricultural and technical colleges
Freedmen’s Bureau Welfare agency for those made destitute in war (mainly freed slaves and homeless whites)
Black Codes southern laws that restricted freedom of blacks after Civil War
Civil Rights Act of 1866 a) All African-Americans were legal citizens b) Said Black Codes illegal
14th Amendment Obligated states to respect rights of citizens by providing “equal protection of the laws” and “due process”
15th Amendment Prohibited any state from denying a citizen’s right to vote based upon “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
Sharecropping Landlord (white) provided seed and tools while sharecropper (black) gave landlord 50% of harvest (typically)
Credit Mobilier Affair Railroad investors were stealing govt money which was supposed to finance RR
Compromise of 1877 political compromise that officially ended Reconstruction of south after Civil War
Frederick Jackson Turner argued in his "frontier thesis" that the frontier had played a fundamental role in shaping the unique character of American society
Helen Hunt Jackson wrote A Century of Dishonor (1880s) detailing American abuses of Indians
Dawes Severalty Act (1887) Law that attempted to assimilate Indians into American culture by giving them farms and citizenship
What were four major characteristics of the “New South" A) Economic progress B) Continued poverty C) attempts to change agriculture D) Racial segregation
Crop lien system farmer paid portion of his crop as payment for the SUPPLIES (to store owners)
Plessy v Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” accommodations in public were constitutional
Booker T. Washington in his Atlanta Compromise speech, he said social equality was “folly”; so blacks should at least improve themselves economically
W. E. B. Dubois advocated complete equality between blacks and whites
Cornelius Vanderbilt 19th century "Robber Baron" who made fortune in railroads
Bessemer Process Blasted air through molten iron made stronger steel
Andrew Carnegie Robber Baron who made fortune in steel; became philanthropist
John D. Rockefeller Robber Baron who made fortune in oil (Standard Oil)
Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890) Prohibited any “combination” or “conspiracy” that restrained trade or commerce; not enforced
“Gospel of Wealth” 19th century idea that God wanted rich to be rich
Knights of Labor, 1869 labor union that was very inclusive of all sorts of workers and more radical than most unions (socialist); failed due to inclusion
American Federation of Labor labor union led by Samuel Gompers, excluded many and was more successful
Old immigrants immigrants from northern and western Europe
new immigrants immigrants from southern and eastern Europe
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 banned all new immigrants from China
Great Migration (1890-1930) term used to describe movement of African-Americans to northern cities
Progressivism reform movement that called for governmental policies to right political, economic, and social wrongs of industrial age
“Muckrakers” journalists who exposed social wrongs; incited reform
Omaha Platform platform of Populist Party in early 1900s that called for reforms to curtail power of banks and trusts
William Jennings Bryan politician who made "Cross of Gold" speech demanding the coinage of silver to inflate the US currency system for farmers
Jane Addams founder of Hull House (settlement house) in Chicago
17th Amendment Direct election of senators
Robert LaFollette Progressive Governor of Wisconsin
Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about meat packing industry; led to Meat Inspection Act
John Muir started Sierra Club and modern conservation movement under Teddy Roosevelt
16th Amendment income tax (1916)
Alfred Thayer Mahan Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1890; argued US needed large navy to become world power
Anti-imperialist League opposed imperialism on grounds it was against US idea of freedom
“yellow” journalism Sensationalist papers print exaggerations of Spanish atrocities during Spanish-American War (1898)
Teller Amendment Said US had no intention of taking political control of Cuba after Spanish-American War
Where was the Spanish-American War fought Cuba and Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo fought US for 3 years in American-Filipino War; leader of Filippino resistance movement
Platt Amendment amendment to Cuba's Constitution that established US control over the island
Foraker Act set up government in Puerto Rico after Spanish-American War
Queen Liliuokalani (Lil) last Hawaiian monarch before US settlers overthrew monarchy and established American control
Open Door Policy Sec. of State John Hay’s (McKinley) policy of telling Europeans that all nations would have EQUAL trading rights with China
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903) Britain agrees to grant US Panama Canal Zone
Roosevelt Corollary Only US would intervene in Latin American affairs—no Europeans
Gentlemen’s Agreement, 1908 a) Japan agreed to restrict emigration to California b) TR agreed to get California to repeal anti-Japanese laws
What were the immediate causes of the US entrance into WWI (April 1917) a) Renewed unrestricted submarine warfare b) Russian Revolution c) Zimmerman Telegram
Schenck v United States (1919) Free speech could be limited when it caused “clear and present danger” to public safety; upheld Espionage and Sedition Acts of WWI
Palmer Raids Mass arrests of socialists, communists in 33 cities after WWI
Marcus Garvey sought repatriation of blacks to Africa, black pride and black nationalism
In general, what policies did the Republican presidents of the 1920s share a) Conservatism (as opposed to progressivism) b) Limited govt regulation of economy c) Sympathy for business more than labor
Teapot Dome scandal under Harding, Sec of Interior Fall takes bribes for granting oil leases on govt land in Wyoming
Flappers liberated women of 1920s; shorter dresses, more promiscuous
Liberal Protestantism from 1920s, Took historical and critical view of Bible; Bible was not to be taken literally
18th Amendment outlaws manufacture, sale, distribution of alcohol
Protestant fundamentalism 1920s; took Bible literally; represented old-fashioned culture of 1920s
Billy Sunday Aimee Semple McPherson Protestant fundamentalists of 1920s
Immigration Quota (Act) of 1924/National Origins Act 2% of # of foreigners from foreign nation counted in census of 1890; meant to keep people out based upon race; aimed at "new" immigrants
Sacco and Vanzetti Italian anarchists executed in 1920s (some said because of nativism)
Scopes Trial, 1925 1920s trial that pitted modernists v fundamentalists on question of evolution
The “Lost Generation” Leading writers of post WWI period; left for France because of disgust with US materialism (Fitzgerald, Hemingway)
Washington Conference, 1921 most famous for limiting world navies based upon ratios
What caused the Great Depression A) Stock market speculation B) Mistakes by the Federal Reserve Board C) An ill-advised tariff D) A maldistribution of wealth
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (Tariff Act of 1930) Raised tariffs on agricultural and manufactured goods; deepened Depression
20th Amendment Moved inauguration of new President from March to January
Who criticized the New Deal A) Huey Long B) Father Charles Coughlin C) Charles Francis Townsend
Good Neighbor Policy FDR's policy toward Latin America that a) Repudiated TR’s Roosevelt Corollary in 1933 b) Nullified Platt Amendment (Cuba) in 1934
Nye Committee US entered WWI to make $ for bankers, munitions makers
America First Committee mobilized US public opinion against WWII (used Lindbergh as speaker)
“cash and carry” US policy toward belligerents in early WWII; pay cash, use own ships (favored Brits)
Lend-Lease, 1941 Brits got all weapons they needed; US got bases during WWII
Atlantic Charter, 1941 affirmed US-British goals/alliance
Braceros Mexican farm workers who were allowed to enter US during WWII
“zoot suit” riots of 1943 fights between Mexicans and whites in Los Angeles during WWII
Executive Order 9066 internment camps ordered for Japanese-Americans during WWII
Korematsu v US Supreme Court case that upheld internment of Japanese in camps during WWII
Operation Overlord (D-Day) Allied invasion of northern France during WWII
Bataan Death March 70,000 Americans forced by Japanese to march 60 miles w/o food, water for shipment to prison camps; 7,000 die; in Philippines during WWII
Yalta Conference WWII conference that divided Germany into 4 zones of occupation
GI Bill law that gave US servicemen from WWII things like free education and VA hospitals
Taft-Hartley Act (1947) anti-union law of 1947 that gave states ability to pass "right to work" laws prohibiting required memberships in unions
Dixiecrats southern Democrats who left Democratic Party b/c of Truman’s stance on civil rights
22nd Amendment Limited Prez. to maximum of 2 full terms in office
Truman Doctrine US would seek to contain communism wherever it was seen as a threat in the world
North Atlantic Treaty Organization western military alliance meant to defend all members from attack during Cold War;led by USA
Warsaw Pact (1955) eastern European alliance of communist nations during Cold War
Second Red Scare fear that there was communist infiltration at all levels of US govt in early 1950s
Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin Claimed Truman’s administration was filled with communists
Ho Chi Minh communist-nationalist leader of Vietnamese (Vietminh)
Geneva Peace Accords, 1954 Vietnam split into communist north, non-communist south (17th parallel)
“other-directed” society of 1950s a) People measured themselves against images created by mass media b) TV, Advertising, movies, pop music create images we try to live up to
Dr. Benjamin Spock said women were natural child rearers; future of US depended
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka (1954) State mandated segregation of schools violated Constitution (equal protection under law); overturned Plessy v Ferguson
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) civil rights organization founded by Martin Luther King
Civil Rights Act of 1957 a) Expedited lawsuits by African-Americans who claimed voting rights were violated b)Created Commission on Civil Rights to advise govt on issues
Betty Friedan The Feminine Mystique; Complained about confinement to home and lack of career opportunities
Phyllis Schafly believes equality with men would take away many of their privileges in society (like exemption from draft)
Civil Rights Act of 1964 a) Created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) b) Outlawed discrimination in public transport facilities (hotels, restaurants)
Medicare Great Society program that started nationally funded medical coverage for elderly
Medicaid Great Society program that started nationally funded medical care for low-income citizens
Gulf of Tonkin Incident incident that resulted in LBJ's expansion of the war in Vietnam (1965)
Operation Rolling Thunder code name for saturation bombing of North Vietnam
The “New” Left Young liberals who tried to distance themselves from traditional Democrats who weren’t fulfilling American ideals
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) issued Port Huron Statement that demanded more quality in US society and on US college campuses
My Lai Massacre Murder of app. 350-500 South Vietnamese civilians (mostly women, children)during Vietnam War; turned many in US against war
Tet Offensive NVA and Vietcong launch offensive in numerous South Vietnamese cities in 1968; turns US public against war
Détente “thawing of Cold War under Richard Nixon (exemplified by his visit to China)
Watergate scandal that resulted in resignation of Richard Nixon because he covered up evidence of Watergate break in (to steal campaign secrets from Democrats during 1972 election)
Camp David Accords peace agreement between Israel and Egypt brokered by Jimmy Carter
Iran-Contra Affair scandal during Reagan Administration in which weapons were sold illegally to Iran and $ funneled illegally to Contras in Nicaragua
“Reaganomics” “supply side” or “trickle-down” theory; idea was to cut taxes of wealthiest the most; savings would be invested in business and jobs created; Benefits would “trickle down” to common man
3/5 Compromise in Constitution; said each slave in the US would count as 3/5 a person when being counted for congressional representation
Great Compromise at Constitutional Convention, compromise between big states and little states that created bi-cameral Congress with House of Representatives based on population and Senate based on equal representation (2 per state)
Anne Hutchinson Puritan woman who was banned from Massachusetts Bay colony because she challenged the Puritan ideas, especially with reagards to women
What were the causes of US imperialism in the late 1800s a) cultural (social Drawinism)b) economic reasons (search for markets to sell goods)c) political reasons (desire to be world power--see Mahan)d) social reasons (outlet for troublemakers at home)
Kent State massacre (1970) anti-war protest that resulted in 4 students being killed by Ohio National guardsmen
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) formed in 1935, it was union that sought to include unskilled and semi-skilled factory workers as opposed to just skilled workers
Why was Jamestown founded to return a profit to the investors of the Virginia Company
In what area of the country did women's suffrage start the West (because women were valued more on the frontier)
Dienbienphu (1954) French defeat in Vietnam that resulted in French withdrawal and increase in US involvement
George Kennan American diplomat who argued US should focus on containing communism
Why did open range cattle ranching decline in 1880s a) blizzards b) overgrazing c) drop in cattle prices d) increase in farmland
Jacob Riis wrote/photographed "How the Other Half Lives" documenting horrible living conditions of immigrants
Stokely Carmichael founder of Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and later founder of Black Panthers; moderate to militant
What did late 19th century farmers do to improve their living conditions a) regulate railway fees b) organized cooperatives c) Formed Populist Party d) fought to inflate currency with coinage of silver
National Organization of Women (NOW) women's rights organization founded in 1966 to challenge sexual discrimination in the workplace (Betty Friedan)
Three Mile Island nuclear reactor melt-down in 1979; increased support for movement against nuclear power
Hudson River School group of mid 19th century artists known for their landscape paintings of Hudson River Valley especially
What was the initial US policy toward the outbreak of both World Wars neutrality
What characterized the women's rights movement prior to the Civil War (antebellum) a) linked with anti-slavery movement b) involved mostly middle class women c) fought for legal and educational rights d) held conventions in NE and Midwest
Populism a) regulation/nationalization of railroads b) coinage of silver/national currency c) graduated (progressive) income tax d) Australian (secret) ballot
American Colonization Society early 19th century movement that sought to return slaves to Africa (Liberia)
Quakers a) founded Pennsylvania b) believed in Pacifism, religious tolerance, anti-slavery, greater role for women in worship
Robert Owen 19th century Utopian reformer who sought to create an enlightened form of socialism in US
Antietam (1862) Union victory in Civil War that prevented intervention by foreign powers
Created by: bjgrieve
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