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Mcat tpr jane

how catalysts, inhibitors affect reaction rates catalysts increase, inhibitors decrease reaction rates 3 shapes of bacteria round (coccus), rod-shaped (bacillus), spiral (spirochete) 3 questions to be answered before solving pedigree problems 1. is condition carried on a dominant or rec. allele? 2. autosomal or sex-linked? 3. if sex-linked, is it on X or on Y? state diff. btwn arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels in terms of structure, pressure, and fluid movement arteries=thick musc layer to regulate flow, high bp, pressure moves blood away from heart; veins/lymphatic vessels=thin musc layer, low pressure, fluid moved thr. body movements, have valves, return fluid to heart
Def. replication, transcription, and translation; at which stage is synthesis of mrna regulated? rep: dna to dna. Xcription: dna to rna (regulation of mrna synthesis). Xlation (rna to protein) define obligate aerobe, facultative anaerobe, tolerant anaerobe, and obligate aerobe oblig. aerobe: must use o2 to survive. f. anaerobe: prefers o2, but can survive by ferm. if no o2 is present tol. anaer: doesn't use o2 but isn't poisoned by o2 oblig. anaerobe: only survives in absence of o2 2 ways to determine whether genes are linked 1. after a cross, ratios of homozygous dominants, homozygous rec, heterozygotes in progeny do not match what would be expected for unlinked genes. alleles for genes don't assort independently 2. rf value < 50% what do enzymes do to alter reaction rates? how is delta G affected by enzymes? enzymes reduce activation energy to speed up rxn rates; delta G is not affected by enzymes.
differences between dna and rna; 3 types of rna and their functions 1. Dna: dbl stranded, ACTG Bases, deoxyribose sugar... Rna: ss stranded, ACUG Bases, sugar ribose. mRna: Xlated to make proteins, rRna: needed to make fctnal ribosomes, tRna: carrys a.a. to growing p.p. diff between bacterial asexual reproduction and conjugation bacterial asexual reproduction: binary fission, increases population size w/o mixing up genetic info. conjugation: only purpose is to exchange Dna; doesn't result in a bigger population 2 outcomes of 4 basic single gene crosses 1. homoz. x same homoz.=100% same homoz. 2. homoz. dom. x homoz. rec=100% heteroz. 3. homoz. x heteroz.=50% same homoz.+50% heteroz. 4. heteroz.xheteroz.=25% homoz. dom+ 50%heterozy.+ 25%homoz. rec. for each hormone, state where they come from, what causes their release, what their target organ is/are, and their function: insluin, glucagon insulin=from pancreas, high blood gluc, targets all cells, reduce blood gluc; glucagon=frompancreas, low blood glucose, targets liver, increase blood glucose
At least 5 diff. btwn procaryotes and eucaryotes proc: single circular chromosome, no nucleus/organelles, 3 diff. Dna pols and 1 Rna pol, mRna polycistronic, no mrna processing. Euc: nucleus/organelles, 1 dna pol, 3 Rna pol, monocistronic mRna, svrl linear chromosomes, mRna processed before Xlation cell organelles and their functions nucleus: control center, holds dna, site of rep. and Xcription ribosome: protein synth RER: holds rib. that are synth. secreted or mem prot, prot modif. golgi app: sorts/packages prot. prot mod lysosome: digestive enzyme container perox: elim free rads 2 hardy-weinberg equations; 5 conditions for h-w equilibrium p+q=1, p^2+2pq+q^2=1. conditions: large population, random mating, no migration, no mutations, no natural selection what sort of things are found at the active site of an enzyme? anything that'd stabilize transition state: ions, charged a.a., etc...
name 3 diff. life cycles of a virus. Which of these is only in animal virus life cycle? lytic, lysogenic productive. Productive for animal viruses only. types of molecules that can and cannot easily cross plasma membrane small, nonpolar molecules easily cross; large polar molecules cannot basic theory behind evolution by nat. selection organisms better adapted to a particular environment will survive better than organisms which are poorly adapted. Because they survive, their genes will be passed on to their offspring. over time, this can substantially alter a pop. for each hormone, state where they come from, what causes their release, what their target organ is/are, and their function: oxytocin, ADH, thyroid hormone post pituitary for all, oxytocin (nursing/labor, targets rep. smooth muscle, labor/milk ejection), ADH (high blood osmolarity, targets kidney tubules, retain water), thyroid horm (from thyroid gland, low met. targets all cells, increase metabolism)
def. gene, trait, allele, genotype, and phenotype gene: piece of dna that codes for a product trait: physical characteristic of an organism allele: version of a gene genotype: comb. of alleles an organism has phenotype: physical char. of an organism dictated by alleles rule of multiplication and rule of addition; how they are used rule of mult: odds of a and b (independent) occurring=(odd of a)x(odd of b) rule of add: odds of a or b (mutually exclusive)=(odds of a)+(odds of b) to solve genetic probability problem by reducing it to a series of single gene crosses def. depolarize, hyperpolarize, and repolarize. which ion channels control the action potential? depolarize: move away from rest potential in positive direction. hyperpolarize: move away from rest in negative direction repolarize: return to rest. voltage-gated Na+ channels (depolarize), voltage-gated K+ channels (hyper/repolarize) how do comp. inhibitors and noncomp. inhibitors differ in terms of where they bind and how they affect vmax? comp. binds at active site and doesn't change vmax; noncompetitive binds at allosteric site and lowers vmax
diff. btwn peptide hormone and steroid hormone. ex. of each peptide hormone: amino acid based, bind to extracellular receptors, fast acting (adrenaline, insulin, thyroid horm); steroid horm: cholesterol based, bind to intracellular receptors, slow acting (estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol) id. type of tissue the anterior pit. gland made of... post. pituitary gland? ant. pituitary gland is gland tissue (adenohypophysis); posteriod pituitary gland is nervous tissue (neurohypophysis) how/which system (para/symp) does adrenal medulla affect? the adrenal medulla produces epinephrine which can bind to NE receptors; prolongs/increases sympathetic effects for each hormone, state where they come from, what causes their release, what their target organ is/are, and their function: aldosterone, cortisol, estrogen aldosterone=from adre. cortex, low bp, targets kidney tubules, increase Na+ retention; cortisol=fromadr. cortex, stress, targets liver, increase blood gluc; estrogen=fromdeveloping follicle, FSH, targets uterus/other cells, inc lining and female sex char
for etc: where is nadh/fadh2 ox? how many atp per molecule? how are atp produced? nadh oxidized at 1st proton pump in inner mit. membrane; fadh2 ox. at 2nd p+ pump; 3 atp per nadh, 2 atp per fadh2. atp is produced when p+'s move down [gradient] back into matrix across an ATP synthetase. how many total atp made per gluc for aerobicresp? how many for fermentation? total atp per gluc. for aerobicresp.=36 (euc) or 38 (proc).Total atp for fermentation=2 end products of ferm for yeast and muscle cells? yeast=2 ethanol, 2 atp. muscle cells= 2 lactic acid, 2 atp central dogma of mo bio dna to rna to protein
what are sim/diff btwn rep and Xcription? brieflydesc. how they take place. S: both 5' to 3', start sites; D=rep is proofd, Xcrip isnt, no stop site in rep, Xcrip has stop s, no primer for Xcrip, Rep beg at an ori, primaseputs Rna primer, Dna pol rep both directions away from ori, 1 lead/lag; Rna pol binds P, Xcrip beg start s name/def. 3 point mutations. how seriousare they? how seriousare frameshift mutations... why? missense=new a.a., nonsense=stop cod, silent=no change.Missense/nonsense sev dep on where in the prot the a.a. is affected and how big a change it is. Sil mut. aren't serious. Frameshift mut. are usu. seriousb/c they affect every a.a. from that point on how purines/pyrimidines differ in structure? how they bond in dna? purines=double ring; pyrimidines=single ring. cytosine binds to guanine(3 h bonds),thyminebinds adenine(2 h bonds)
cellular location, end products (per glucose) for glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, krebs, etc, and fermentation glyc: cyto, 2 net atp, 2 nadh, 2 pyruvate. Pdc: mit's matrix, 2 nadh, 2 acetyl coa, 2 co2. Krebs: mit. matrix, 6 nadh, 2 gtp, 2 fadh2, 4 co2. Etc: inner mit. memb, p+ gradient. Ferment: cytoplasm, 2 atp, 2 lactic acid (in muscle) or 2 ethanol (in yeast) stages of mitosis and describing locations of chromosomes in each; when Dna rep. occurs Prophase: rep. chromosomes condense in deterio. nucleus meta: chrom. align at cell center ana: sis. chromatids pulled to opp. sides of cell tel: chromosomes decondense, nucleus forms Dna rep. at S of interphase differentiate btwn symp/parasymp. nervous systems. para (resting/digestion): slows down body proc, diverts bl flow to digest/visc organs, uses only ACh as neurotr; symp (fight, flight, fright, sex) speeds body processes, diverts bl flow to skel musc, uses NE as neurotr. in postganglionic neur. for glycolysis: what happ. to carbon chain? where does atp enter/exit? what are end products? how are they prepared for krebs cycle? 6C(glucose), phosphorylated,split to 3C (pyruvate); atp enters 2x to +P glucose. Atp exits when phosphorylated C chain is split. End products: 2 net ATP, 2 nadh, 2 pyruvate. Pyruvate must be decarboxylated
3 major types of macromolecules, their monomers, and their functions 1. nucleic acid, nucleotide, dna (genetic info), rna (protein synhesis) 2. cho, monosaccharide, energy 3. protein, amino acid, channels, pore, hormones, enzymes, etc stages of meiosis and location of chromosomes in each. when cell is considered haploid? pro 1: rep. chrom. conde. in deter. nuc, synap/cross over happ met 1: paired homologs align at center ana 1: homologs sep, pull to opp sides tel 1: sis chromatids tog in new nuc (prop, met, ana, tel)II: same as mitosis but amt Dna/2 cell hap. after tel II 5 classes of sensory receptors... what they respond to, and ex. of each? mechanorecep= shape change, hearing receptors, touch receptors; thermorec= temp., hot/cold receptors; pain recept= pain, all over body; chemorec=chemicals, smell, taste, co2 recept; photorece=lights, rods, cones for each hormone, state where they come from, what causes their release, what their target organ is/are, and their function: progesterone,testosterone progesterone=from corpus luteum, LH, targets uterus, maintains lining; testosterone=from Sertoli cells (testes), FSH, targets sperm/other cells, sperm production/male sex char.
difference between an endocrine and an exocrine gland endocrine: secrete hormones directly into blood; exocrine: secrete various products through ducts onto body surface or cavity for each hormone, state where they come from, what causes their release, what their target organ is/are, and their function: growth hormone, prolactin, TSH anterior pit=growth horm (exercise/other hormones, targets all cells, growth/cell turnover); prolactin (nursing, targets mammary glands, breast milk production); TSH (low thyroid horm, targets thyroid, inc. thyroid horm) for each hormone, state where they come from, what causes their release, what their target organ is/are, and their function: ACTH, FSH, LH ant pit for all, ACTH (low corticosteroids, targets adr. cortex, relea. of corticosteroids), FSH (low sex steroids, targets ov/test, egg/sperm maturation), LH (low sex steroids, targets ovaries/test,ovulation/progesterone/testosterone release) for krebs: what happ. to carbon chain? where do you make nadh, fadh2, gtp? how many glucose per molecule? 2C (acetyl-coa) added to 4C (OAA) to make 6C (citric acid), decarboxylated 2x, isomerized back to OAA. 2 nadh during decarboxylation, 1 nadh, 1 fadh2, 1 gtp during isom.; per glucose: 6 nadh, 2 fadh2, 2 gtp
Created by: janehwan
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