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CLS 412 unit 1


type C electrical
type B organic chemicals
type D combustible metals
type A wood
viral infection biological hazard
Carcinogen exposure Chemical hazard
Shock Electrical hazard
Strained back Physical hazard
State the three components of the chain of infection. Source, transmission method, and host
Name two blood-borne pathogens. HBV, HCV, and HIV
What document does OSHA require all laboratories using hazardous chemicals to have on file? chemical hygiene plan
What are the diamond-shaped, color-coded labels placed on chemical cabinets in the urinalysis lab called? NFPA symbols
A laboratorian who is pregnant should avoid areas designated by what hazard symbol? Radiation
All of the following are considered normal functions of the kidney except: elimination of serum proteins
The approximate number of nephrons contained in each kidney is: 1,000,000
The order of blood flow through the nephron is: afferent arteriole, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta
The total renal blood flow is approximately: 1200 mL/min
The total renal plasma flow is approximately: 600 mL/min
The glomerular filtrate is described as a: protein-free ultrafiltrate of plasma
Increased production of aldosterone causes: increased plasma sodium levels
The primary chemical affected by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is: sodium
The specific gravity of the glomerular ultrafiltrate is: 1.010
All of the following are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by active transport except: water
Water is passively reabsorbed in all parts of the nephron except the: ascending loop of Henle
Most of the sodium filtered by the glomerulus is reabsorbed in the: proximal convoluted tubule
The enzyme renin is produced by the kidney: in response to low plasma sodium levels
Concentration of the tubular filtrate by the countercurrent mechanism is dependent on all of the following except: active transport reabsorption of sodium and glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule
The osmotic gradient of the medulla: affects sodium reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
Aldosterone regulates sodium reabsorption in the: distal convoluted tubule
Decreased production of vasopressin: produces a high urine volume
Production of antidiuretic hormone is controlled by the: state of body hydration
Substances removed from the blood by tubular secretion include primarily: protein-bound substances, hydrogen, and potassium
Kidneys with impaired production of ammonia will consistently produce urine with a: high pH
To enhance the excretion of hydrogen ions, ammonia is produced by the cells of the: distal convoluted tubule
To maintain the buffering capacity of the blood, hydrogen ions combine with: filtered bicarbonate ions
Clearance tests used to determine the glomerular filtration rate must measure substances that are: neither reabsorbed or secreted by the tubules
Results for glomerular filtration tests are reported in: milliliters per minute
All of the following are endogenous clearance test substances except: inulin
Performing a clearance test using radionucleotides: ( eliminates the need to collect urine) and (provides visualization of filtration)
If a substance is completely filtered by the glomerulus and then completely reabsorbed by the tubules, the clearance of that substance will be: zero
The most routinely used laboratory method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate is the: creatinine clearance
The most common error in measuring the glomerular filtration rate using the creatinine clearance is: inaccurate timing of urine collection
All of the following could cause falsely decreased creatinine clearance results except: secretion of creatinine by the tubules
The body surface of the average person in square meters is: 1.73
An additional calculation that may be required in the creatinine clearance is a correction for: body size
Performing a creatinine clearance is helpful for determining: the feasibility of administering medications
The renal function that is most frequently the first affected by early renal disease is: tubular reabsorption
For accurate evaluation of renal tubular concentrating ability, patient preparation should include: fluid deprivation
Measurement of urine osmolarity is a more accurate measure of renal concentrating ability than specific gravity because: osmolarity is influenced equally by small and large molecules
Solute dissolved in solvent will: decrease the freezing point
Vapor pressure osmometers are based on the principle that: increased solute lowers the vapor pressure of a solution
Clinical osmometers use NaCl as a reference solution because: NaCl is partially ionized similar to the composition of urine
Substances that can interfere with serum osmolarity readings include all of the following except: sodium
The results of a serum osmolarity performed by both freezing-point and vapor-pressure osmometry do not agree. A possible cause of this discrepancy would be: increased ethanol
A technical error that could cause a discrepancy between freezing-point and vapor-pressure osmometry readings is: evaporation of the sample
The normal serum osmolarity is: 275 to 300 mOsm
The extent to which the kidney concentrates the glomerular filtrate can be determined by measuring: urine and serum osmolarity
The test that provides information similar to specific gravity is the: osmolarity
The serum osmolarity of a patient with hyponatremia: should be lower than 275 mOsm
To determine the amount of water that must be cleared to produce urine with the same osmolarity as the ultrafiltrate, one should perform: an osmolar clearance
To determine the ability of the kidneys to respond to filtrate osmolarity, one should perform a: free water clearance
A free water clearance of -2.5 could be indicative of: dehydration
A patient with insufficient production of ADH would have which of the following results? Urine volume—5 mL/min; osmolar clearance—2 mL/min
The PAH test is used to measure: renal blood flow
To provide an accurate measure of renal blood flow, a test substance should be: cleared on each contact with functional renal tissues
PAH is secreted by the: proximal convoluted tubule
A PAH test result showing a renal plasma flow of 400 mL/min: may be falsely decreased from impaired tubular secretion
Which of the following is not associated with the elimination of hydrogen ions? Protein
Renal tubular acidosis can be caused by the: inability to produce an acid urine due to impaired production of ammonia
Tests to measure the tubular secretion of hydrogen ions include all of the following except: urinary bicarbonate
Following administration of oral ammonium chloride, a patient with renal tubular acidosis will produce: urine with a high pH
Total acidity of a urine specimen is a combination of: titratable acidity and ammonium ion
Created by: kashe220
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