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(M) Accelerating Change, 1875-1905 (Section 3)

What disease that was common amongst farm animals did Koch want to prove was caused by microorganisms? Anthrax
When did Robert Koch set up a small laboratory and begin his research? 1872
What happened as a result of Koch's research? He was invited to Berlin where the German government gave him funding
What living thing was much of Koch and Pasteur's work based around? Microorganisms
How did Pasteur and his team discover vaccinations? They were investigating chicken cholera. Pasteur's assistant went on holiday, leaving a culture of cholera to the side. He got back and used it on a chicken who didn't develop cholera. It still didn't develop cholera when injected with strong cholera
When did Pasteur publicly test his Anthrax vaccination in front of a crowd? 1881
What were the results of Pasteur's anthrax vaccine experiment? The unvaccinated animals were dead or swollen/feverish, whilst all of the vaccinated animals were alive
Who was the first ever recipient of a vaccine and when? Joseph Meister, 1885
What disease did Joseph Meister have that needed Pasteur's vaccine? Rabies
How did Koch make it easier to study microorganisms under a mircroscope? Staining them with chemical dyes
What did the study of bacteria become known as? Bacteriology
For what 2 reasons were Pasteur and Koch rivals? 1. They both wanted to be the first to make significant scientific breakthroughs 2. France and Germany went to war in 1870-71 and both governments were keen to gain honour from their scientists' work
When was the anthrax microorganism identified and who discovered it? Koch, 1875
When did Pasteur develop the vaccine against anthrax in chickens and cows? 1881
When was the tuberculosis microorganism identified and who discovered it? Koch, 1882
When was the cholera microorganism identified and who discovered it? Koch, 1883
Why was there still resistance to Lister's antiseptic techniques after Koch and Pasteur's work? Carbolic spray made operations difficult
What did Koch develop that was used to clean equipment and dressings in surgery? A steam steriliser
How did Koch come up with the idea of a steam steriliser? Pasteur had shown microorganisms could be killed using heat
What is the difference between antiseptic and aseptic surgery? Antiseptic means fighting infection during the surgery, whereas aseptic is preventing microorganisms from even getting near the open wound
In what 3 ways did surgeons create aseptic conditions for surgery? 1. No spectators allowed in operating theatre 2. Surgeons wore clean clothes 3. Surgeons wore masks and rubber gloves
What is catgut made from? Sheep intestines
Why were ligatures not very effective? They often became hard, preventing the wound from healing and could also cause infection
What feature of catgut meant it didn't prevent the body from healing properly? It dissolved in the body after 2/3 weeks
What did Lister do to catgut before using it as a ligature? Soak it in carbolic acid, to prevent in from causing infection
When was it discovered that cocaine could be used as a local anaesthetic? 1884
What was the safer version of cocaine and when was it developed? Novocaine, 1905
What was the 1876 River Pollution Prevention Act? It became illegal for factories to dump waste into rivers
What did the 1875 Food and Drugs Act say? Quality of food on sale had to be inspected
What rule surrounding Medical Officers was different in the 1875 Public Health Act compared to the 1848 Act? Local authorities now HAD to appoint a Medical Officer
Why did the 1875 Public Health Act provide lighting on the street? So people could avoid rubbish and dirt
Why did the 1875 Public Health Act want to provide clean water? To reduce the risk of catching waterborne diseases, such as typhoid or cholera
What Act was passed that gave authorities the power to demolish slum housing and when was it passed? The Artisans' Dwellings Act in 1875
Who was responsible for implementing laws around public health from 1875-1905? Local authorities
What did all the new laws from 1875-1905 show about people's attitudes towards the government? People's attitudes were changing and they believed the government should have a more active role in protecting public health
Why did governments begin to do more to gain support from ordinary people? More people were gaining the right to vote
Who discovered that there were different blood types? Karl Landsteiner
When did Landsteiner discover a fourth blood type? 1902
Before Landsteiner, why were patients often dying from blood transfusions? They were being given the wrong blood type
Name 2 types of blood disorders that people were suffering from 1. Anaemia 2. Leukaemia
Even after blood types were discovered, what were 2 main problems with blood transfusions? 1. Blood would clot as soon as it left the body 2. A donor of the right blood type had to be present as the transfusion happened, as it wasn't discovered how to store blood
What is diphtheria caused by? Microorganisms in milk
In the 19th century, how many children per year died from diphtheria? 8,000
What are antitoxins? A type of antibody that neutralise the toxins released by some microorganisms
Who identified the antitoxins produced to fight diphtheria and when? Emil von Behring, 1890
What did von Behring discover could be done to help cure diphtheria? Injecting antitoxins used to fight bacteria into a patient
What was a magic bullet? A treatment made to kill disease-carrying microorganisms without affecting other cells in the body
Who invented the magic bullet? Paul Ehrlich
When was the first magic bullet invented? 1909
What was the name of the first magic bullet and what was the reason for this name? Salvarsan 606, because it was Ehrlich's 606 compound that he had tried
Who discovered X-rays? Wilhelm Röntgen
Describe the tube used by Röntgen to discover X-rays An electric current is passed through a glass tube containing low pressure gases. The tube is covered in black cardboard
What was Röntgen trying to study when he discovered X-rays? Cathode rays
How did Röntgen discover X-rays from his experiment? Normal light could not pass through the black cardboard, but photographic plates were recording unknown light rays
When did Röntgen publish his x-ray findings? December 1895
How come hospitals and other people were allowed to use Röntgen's findings and install their own X-rays? He purposefully didn't take out a patent for his invention, so others could use it
What was the first X-ray of a human? Röntgen's wife put her hand between the cathode ray tube and photographic plate
Why were X-rays important for treating broken bones? Broken bones could now be set properly, so an injured person wouldn't have to walk with reduced movement
Why were X-rays important in combat? They allowed surgeons to locate the bullet/shrapnel, meaning less time was spent searching the wound (which increased likelihood of infection)
How was tuberculosis detected by X-rays? It showed up as a shadow on the lungs
Which 3 people discovered polonium and radium when studying radiation? 1. Henri Becquerel 2. Marie Curie 3. Pierre Curie
When did Pierre Curie die? 1906
When was a Radium Institute set up for Marie Curie? 1910
What did Marie Curie mainly focus on when researching radium at her institute? How it's radioactivity could kill tumors
When was Marie Curie awarded her second Nobel Prize? 1911
What were ambulances in WW1 equipped with thanks to Marie Curie? Mobile X-ray units
What were the mobile X-ray units used in WW1 ambulances called? Les petites Curies (The little Curies)
Created by: JoeMather
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