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digestive system- 6

chapter 6

Stomach, pancreas, small intestine contains what type of gland? Exocrine
Stomach mixes and stores food into chyme
stomach begin ____ digestion Protein
stomach brakes down protein with what enzyme PEPSIN
low ph of stomach helps to dentature proteins; kill bacteria
4 types of cells in the stomach chief, parietal, mucous, G-cells
Chief (peptic) cell secretes pepsinogen
Parietal ( oxyntic) cell secretes HCL
G-cell secretes gastrin into interstitium
NO absorption occurs in the stomach
Pepsinogen (zymogen of pepsin) is activated in stomach by low pH
in the cell lumen.... HCL + CO2= Carbonic acid
H+ from Carbonic acid is diffused into cell lumen side to lower pH of stomach
Bicarbonate ion is expelled to the interstitial fluid to increase pH of blood
gastrin stimulates parietal cells to release HCL
Major hormones that affect stomach juice secretion histamine, gastrin and acetylcholine
acetylcholine stimulates all cells to secrete
Gastrin and histamine stimulate HCL secretion
small intestine has outermost layers with fingerlike projections called villi
the villi's apical (lumen side) surface has microvilli
small hairlike stuff on microvilli brush border
brushborder secretes enzymes that digest carbs, proteins, nucleotides
small intestine does absorption and digestion
capillary network and lymph vessel in villi lacteal
_____ increase SA of intestine microvilli
small intestine has epithelial cells called _____, that secrete mucous to lubricate intestine and protect brush border GOBLET cells
Small intestine secrete juices with ____ & ____ high pH and lysozyme
bacteria is regulated in sm intestine by lysozyme
Duodenum has a pH of 6 because of the bicarbonate ion given off by the pancreas
pancreatic enzymes include:: trypsin, chymostrypsin, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease and pancreatic amylase and lipase
all enzymes of the pancreas are released as zymogens
villi aka enterocyte
Enterokinase located in the brush border activate trypsin
Trypsin activates all the other enzymes
______ &______ degrade proteins into polypeptides trypsin and chymotrypsin
proteins reach the brush border as polypeptides b4 they reach the enterocyte as AA, dipeptides, tripeptides
enzymes within enterocyte reduce tripeptides and dipeptides into amino acids
enterocyte= cells of brushborder
pancreatic amylase (stronger than salivary amylase) digests polysacharides into disacharide and trisacharides
Lipase degraded fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids with the help of bile
BILE made by the liver, but stored in the gallbladder; it increases SA, and emulsifies fats (but DOES NOT digest it)
Bile Does not touch the _____ of fats chemistry
Large intestine is incharge of water reabsorbtion and electrolyte absorption. It also contains E.Coli
bacteria E.Coli has what type of relationship with the large intestine mutualistic symbiosis
E.coli produce vitamin k, B12, thiamin and riboflavin
local peptide hormones secreted by the small intestine after a mean = secretin, CCk, gastric inhibitory peptide
secretin, CCk, gastric inhibitory peptide increase BL INSULIN levels especially in the presence of glucose
HCL in the duodenum causes secretin release
_____ stimulates sodium bicarbonate secretion by the pancreas secretin
gastric inhibitory peptide decrease stomach motility
causes gallblader contraction and pancreatic enzyme secretion. ALSO decreases motility of stomach, allowing more time for the duodenum to digest fats CCK
Is bile an enzyme? NO it is an emulsifying AGENT
The end product of carb digestion is glucose (carried in the BL)
In carb absorbtion, GLUCOSE is absorbed by a ______ and carried _____ the conc. gradient of sodium secondary active transport mechanism; down
formation of glucose= glycogenesis
When BL glucose is low, ____ takes place and in the liver and glucose is returned to the blood glucogenolysis
In all cells except _____ &_______, glucose is transported from high conc. to low via facilliated diffusion. enterocyte cells and renal tubule cells
when you think of proteins think of ___ nitrogen
Proteins have to be degraded into _____ before being absorbed into the blood amino acids
PROTEINS (amino acids) are absorbed down concentration gradient by cotransport mechamism
Amino Acids are transported to the cell via active or faciliated diffusion (never Passive)
Gluconeogenesis of proteins have what byproducts? Ammonia( nitrogen product)
Ammonia is converted to _____ by the liver urea
Urea is expelled from the body by kidney's - urine
fats combine with what to be transported through the blood? albumin
fats need a carrier b/c they r insoluble. These carriers can be albumin or lipoproteins
lipid in plasma= lipoprotein
chylomicrons = large lipoproteins
liver receives blood from... capillary beds of large intestines, pancreas, stomach, spleen
liver receives blood via hepatic portal vein
liver moves blood to the vena cava
A second blood supply is given to the liver (used to oxygenate the liver) via hepatic artery
2 important clotting factors prothrombin and fibrinogen
____ is the major osmoregulatory protein in the blood Albumin
Group of proteins that include antibodies Globulins
Antibodies are made from plasma cells
blood storage liver
blood filtration liver
carb, fat, and protein metabolism liver
detoxification liver
vitamin storage liver
erythrocyte destruction liver
fats enter the lymph as _____ before entering the blood chylomicrons
The liver synthesizes non essential AA
Gluconeogenesis production of glucose and glycogen from non carb precursors; OCCURS MAINLY IN LIVER
glycogenolysis is inhibited by insulin
excrete wastes, maintain homeostasis, control plasma pH KIDNEY
urine is emptied in which kidney part? renal pelvis
Filtration occurs in renal corpuscle
reabsoprtion/ secretion occurs in proximal tubule
concentrates solutes in the medulla loop of henle
reabsorbs Na+and Ca2+ and secretes k+, HCO3-, H+ distal tubule
aldosterone has what affect on the distal tubule? lowers filtrate osmularity
distal tubule empties into collecting duct
ADH makes _____ more permeable to water collecting ducts in the medulla
amount of filtrate is related to amount of hydrostatic pressure in the glomulerus
descending loop of henle is permeable to water
ascending loop of henle is impermeable in water
actively transports sodium into the kidney ascending loop of henle
juxtaglomular apparatus monitors filtrate pressure in the distal tubule
actively transports sodium into the kidney ascending loop of henle
juxtaglomular apparatus monitors filtrate pressure in the distal tubule
Renin stimulates angiotensin 1, 2, 3 to stimulates Adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone
aldosterone acts on distal tubule to secrete K+, and absorb Na2+
Created by: zrsoori


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