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chem notes 2

Amphoteric can act as an acid or a base; H2O
If we want the conjugate Base, then H2O acting as an acid (proton donor); H20--> H+ + OH- (CB)
If we want the conjugate Acid, then H2O is acting as a base( proton acceptor) H20--> H3O+ (CA)
Strong ACIDS::: 7 of them HCl; HBr; HI; H2SO4; HNO3; HCLO4; HCLO3
Strong BASES:: 8 of them LiOH; NAOH; KOH; RbOH; CsOH; ---> Group 1 & then Ca(OH)2; Sr(OH)2; Ba(OH)2 ----> Group 2
Ba(OH)2 Barium Hydroxide
Oxyacidic Trend: More OXYGEN= more Acidic for Oxyacid i.e. HCLO<HCLO2
Oxyacidic Trend: More ELECTRONEGATIVE the element= more Acidic ( stronger) ....NOT including H or O......I.e. HCLO3 > HBrO3
More acidic more stable; larger; weaker conjugate base
Kw of water= 1X 10 ^-14
Kw= [H+] [OH-]
Ka*Kb= Kw
pH= -log[H+]
pOH= -log[OH-]
[H+]*[OH-]= 1X 10^-14
pH+ pOH= 14
H+= 10^-pH
OH- = 10^-pH
As -OH goes up (inc)....pOH goes ______? DOWN (Dec)
1M HCL will have a pH of ?? 0
10 M HCL will have a pH of ??? and a pOH of ?? pH= -1 and pOh= 15
weak acid _____ dissociated; Strong acid _____ dissociates weak acid= partially dissociates; strong acids= fully dissociates
Shortcut to find weak acid pH:: when Ka is given [H3O+] = sqrt Ka*HA
Shortcut to find weak base pOH:: when Kb is given [OH-] = sqrt Kb*A-
Moles and pH are ______ proportional inversely
Dissociation of a weak base A- + H20= OH- + HA
Dissociation of a weak acid HA+ H20= H30 + A-
HF + CL- ---> HCL + F- HF= weak acid; CL- = weak conjugate base; HCL= strong acid; F- = strong conjugate base
Equilibrium favors the ______ side in a dissociation rxn ??? weaker side (side with weaker acid/ or base)
INCREASE Ka= _____ pKa? DECREASE ----> stronger acid
INCREASE Kb= ______ pKb? DECREASE ----> stronger base
Cations (+)- neutral salt...8 conjugate acids conjugate acid of strong bases....Li+, K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+
Anion (-) - neutral salt......7 conjugate bases conjugate base of strong acid.....Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, CLO4-, CLO3-, HSO4-
Anions usually BASES w/ exception to the 7 conjugate bases of the strong acids
Cations usually ACIDS w/ exception to the 8 neutral conjugate acids of the strong bases
More positively charged= the better the _____ acid ( cation)
To find out if a salt is acid or base...i.e. CsF Cs is a neutral cation ( so its crossed out), and the F has a charge of -1 on table...so its basic ( anion)
NaNO3 ( Sodium Nitrate) has a pH of?? pH= close to 7 because both Na and NO3- are neutral species.
Resists change in pH buffer
Buffer is a combination of.... weak acid and its conjugate base.......OR.......weak base and its conjugate acid; BOTH needed in equal amounts
Buffer can be _____ or ____ away from pH value... +1, -1
Acid/ base pH is scaled based on powers of _____ 10; i.e. pH of 2 is 1000 more acidic than pH of 5
For a Buffer pH equation use :: Henderson Hasselbach ::: pH= pKa+ log (A-)/ (HA)
10x more acid than base = drop one unit from pKa value
100x more acid than base = drop 2 unit from pKa value
10x more base than acid= RAISE 1 unit from pKa value
100x more base than acid= RAISE 2 unit from pKa value
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can NOT be created nor destroyed
Second Law of Thermodynamics For a spontaneous process, ΔS universe> 0; ΔS system + Δ S surroundings > 0
Third Law of Thermodynamics A perfect crystal at 0 K has ZERO entropy
Change in work energy ΔE= q + w ; q= change in heat energy & w= change in work energy
System looses heat if q= negative (-)
System absorbes heat if q= positive (+)
System does work if w= negative (-)
System has work done on it if w= positive (+)
Gas expands then w= negative (-)
Gas compressed then w= positive (+)
w= - PΔV
locked piston = constant volume
As heat (Temp) increases, then ... Pressure increase (P and T are directly related)
Cool= expanding gas
Heat compressing gas
Isobaric constant pressure; ΔP= 0
Isochoric ΔV=0 & w= 0...think v0w isochoric
Isothermal constant temp; ΔT= 0, then ΔE=0
Adiabatic NO heat allowed in or out; q=0
Altitude Change= State function= doesnt matter the path taken ( independent) just matters start and finish
Everything are State Functions EXCEPT: 2 of them q and w ; Even though ΔE= state fx
Path Dependent q and w
Solids have the _____ Entropy ( disorder) ΔS Least amount out of a s,l,g
Gasses have the ____ Entropy ( disorder) ΔS MOST amount
S--> L---> G ΔS=? postitive
G--->L---->S ΔS=? negavite
More moles of gas= ____ entropy more
in a rxn if we go left to right according to the number of moles of gas ( more moles of gas on right then left) Δ S= positive
If products + reactants have the same # of moles of gas ...then Entropy= close to 0 or very small
Enthalpy ΔH= q x p
ΔH<0 Exothermic ( release heat)
ΔH>0 Endothermic ( absorb heat)
if the soln is cold .... endothermic rxn occuring
if the soln if warm.... exothermic rxn occuring
Bond Enthalpy (D) Amnt of energy needed to break a bond
break bond= ENDO ( energy needed in system)
Make bond= EXO ( release energy in a system)
ΔH= bonds broken- bonds formed
Enthalpies of formation ΔHf= products- reactants
ΔHf for any element in it's standard state = 0 ... i.e. Cl2
ΔHf= forms exactly ____ moles of any product & forms elements in their standard state 1 M
Hess's law: Change in ΔH is same regardless of path taken
Gibb's free energy (ΔG) Energy that is free to do work
ΔG<0 Spontaneous
ΔG>0 non- spontaneous
ΔG= 0 equilibrium
ΔG= products- reactants
ΔG= ΔH-TΔS ; Get High Test Scores
Room temp = 25 degrees C standard conditions
ΔH= - .......ΔS= + Spontaneous for all temp
ΔH= + .......ΔS= - Non spontaneous for all temp
ΔH= - .......ΔS= - Spontaneous at low temp
ΔH= + .......ΔS= + Spontaneous at High temp
Oxidation State Rules...Get their typical oxidation states #1 Group 1 or 2 Metals ; #2 H+ is +1 except when bonded to a metal; #3 More electronegative elements get their typical oxidation states
Permangenate MnO4-
Iodide I-
SOdium Azide NaN3
In Redox Reactions... if #e- is on the product side oxidation
In Redox Reactions... if #e- is on the reactant side reduction ( think reactant reduction RR)
In finding E for the reduction potential rxns... dont worry about coefficients, just change sign if reverse is needed
The standard electrode reduction potential E for H= 0v
shift right= E cell Increases= spontaneous
shift left= E cell dencreasses= non spontaneous
E cell= cell potential or EMF
for E cell shifting... only ____ matter not s or L aq
add more reactant, shift to the left
add more product , shift to the right
add more solid or Liquid, shift to the NO shift because s and L are not counted
Increase pH ( loosing H+ and becomes more basic) , shift to the the side with more H+ ions
Decrease pH ( adding H+ and becomes more acidic), shift to the the side with less H+ ions
Nerst :: E= E - [.0592/ n] log Q ; where n= number of moles transfered in rxn; and Q= products/ reactant
strongest oxidizing agent= gets reduced most positive v
strongest reducing agent = gets oxidized most negative v ( think RAN....reducing agent negative)
In a redox rxn if sum = NEGATIVE ...then rxn is not spontaneous
In a redox rxn if sum = POSITIVE ...then rxn is spontaneous
For Spontaneous rxns;; ΔG=___; Ecell = ____; Q___K negative; positive; Q<K If one is true then all is true
Electrolysis= Destruction of electricity; consumes electricity; have to have moving ions;
molten electrolysis= melt salt
NaBr (liguid)= molten b/c its a liquid
Grams made by electrolysis:: (AMPS) ( t in seconds) ( mw) / ( n) ( Faraday= 96,000)
Reductant= gets oxidized
Oxidant= gets reduced
Galvanic/ Voltaic Cells Spontaneous
Cell potential/ EMF= E>0; ΔG<0 Galvanic/ Voltaic Cells
Produces electricity Galvanic/ Voltaic Cells
RED CAT & AN OX Galvanic/ Voltaic Cells
e- go from ANODE ---> CATHODE Galvanic/ Voltaic Cells
ions float in and out of bridge; keep solns neutral; necessary for battery; SALT bridge
In a salt bridge....anions go to _____ & cations go to _____ anode; cathode
NON- spontaneous/ consumes energy ELectrolytic cell
E<0 ; ΔG>0 for _____ cells Electrolytic cell
In a electrolytic cell, anode is ____ & cathode is ____ +; -
In a electrolytic cell electrons move from ANODE (-)----> Cathode (+)
Created by: zrsoori