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chem 1

Farenheit= F= 1.8C + 32
paramagnetic has unpaired e- ; mostly odd number; Oxygen is a good example
______is attracted to the magnetic field; _______ feels slight repulsion from the magnentic field paramagnetic; diamagnetic
Diagmagnetic NO unpaired e-
Pauli Exclusion principle NO 2 e- have the same set of four quantum number
principle shell # n
Azimuthal subshell L
magnetic orientation in space mL
spin quantum number mS
L = ? [0...n-1]
mL = ? -L--> +L
n= ? [ 1--> infiniti]
mS = ? + 1/2, - 1/2
Azimuthal subshell for L --> s= 0 ; p= 1 ; d= 2; f= 3
Max # of electrons per subshell s=2; p= 6 ; d= 10; f= 14
Ground state original way to write out 1s^2....ect
Exctited state occurs when light is absorbed by the ground state; means u put an e- in a higher level orbital b4 the previous orbital is full
4p^4 5s^1 excited state of Br b/c the 4p is not full yet...
ground state --> excited state absorb light
exctied state --> ground state emit light
Helium nucleus =?? has no electrons, just protons and neutrons b/c we r in the nucleus
0 ; -1 Beta (e) elecrton
0; +1 Beta antiparticle electron
0; 0 Gamma gamma ray; strong light radiation
4; 2 alpha has no e-; just protons and neutrons ; i.e. He
unstable nuclei radioactive; has a odd # of Z (protons) or N ( neutrons)
stable nuclei N/Z~ 1 for z<20 ....kind of has to be an equal # of N and Z
stable nuclei N/Z~ 1.6 for larger Z and LArgest N
stable nuclei magic # of N and Z ; makes it stable like Oxygen
stable nuclei 16; 8 O ====> N= 8 and Z= 8 ; so very stable b/c N/Z= 1
E= mc^2 c= speed of light= 3x10^8
Alpha Decay (emission) subtract 4 from the top and 2 from the bottom
Whats the result of alpha decay? Reduce Mass
Z is greater than 83 for heavy elements Anything over mass of 83= radioactive
Beta - Decay add 0 to the top and add 1 to the bottom
All have to do with electrons Beta Decay
Is something is Emitted then it is a _____ Product
Beta + Decay add 0 to the top and subtract one from the bottom
Electron Emission ( electron gets emitted from the parent nucleus) Beta - Decay
Positron Emission ( gets rid of a positive charged e-) Beta + Decay
Net result of beta- decay? turn a neutron to a proton
Net result of Beta + decay & E- Capture turn a proton to a neutron
E- capture take in a negative charged e-, subtract 1 from the bottom; is on the reactants side when written
too many neutrons and not enough protons N/Z is too high and is ABOVE belt of stability N--> P Beta - decay used
too many protons and not enough neutrons N/Z is too low and is below belt of stability P-->N Beta + and e- capture used
Gamma Decay/ Emission on product side; change nothing
Gamma Decay Parent nucleus is the same as daughter nucleus; it goes to excited state and then to ground state; giving off light and energy
All nuclear reactions ( alpha, beta, gamma) loose mass but only ____ looses mass # alpha
whats the most likely route of decay for an element?? if the atomic number (Z) is higher than 83 then its alpha decay. if Z is lower than 83; then find the N/Z ratio. If ratio is higher than 1 for Z < 20 then do B- Decay. If N/Z is lower than 1 then do B+ decay OR E- capture
Radioactive Decay 1st order process; N= Noe^-kt ;; 1/2 life is a constant
Mass defect in nuclear binding energy nucleus weighs less than the p and n seperated
Highest nuclear binding energy per nucleon of any element ( more stable) 56 Fe
Highest nuclear binding total ( very radioactive) 235 U
The lower the nuclear binding energy per nucleon= less stable; more radioactive
highest mass defect per nucleon= highest nuclear binding energy
Anything close to 56 Fe will have the ______ binding energy per nucleon highest
Effective nuclear charge equation ( this is the same as group #) Zeff= Z-S
Na--> Na+ one electron removed; electron cloud gets smaller
CL--> CL- one elecrton added; electron cloud gets larger
cations are ___ than its neutral atom smaller
anions are ___ than its neutral atom larger
Cations are formed from Metals
Anions are formed from non metals
isoelectric series all have the same number of e-; more positive = smaller radius; more negative = larger radius
ionization energy energy needed to remove one e- , making it more positive
point of stability exceptions 1. noble gasses 2. S subshell full (group 2) 3. p subshell e- are unpaired (group 5) 4. Zn, Cd, Hg
exceptions are.... reverse the linear trend
Electron affinity is _____; IE is ____ exothermic; endothermic
Exceptions of Electron Affinity 1. Noble gasses 2. Group 2A 3. Group 5A
Exceptions of Electron Affinity are slightly + b/c they do not want to loose an e- and require input of energy to accept an electron
Electron affinity energy change associated with gaining an e-
Electron affinity is ___, IE is ____. Both deal with _____ reduction; oxidation ; ionic bonding
Electronegativity unequal sharing of e- = covalent bonding
ionic bonding meta + non metal; make ionic compounds
covalent bonding non metal + non metal
covalent bonding makes what 2 compounds: (1) molecular compounds ( make molecules); (2) Network solid ( makes 3D structure like graphite, sand, diamond, and SiO2)
Metallic bonding metal + metal; make metallic compounds
Ionic has a ____ MP and ___ BP high MP; High BP; b/c has to break bonds and takes more energy
Ionic is brittle T of F? TRUE
Covalent has a ___ MP and __ BP low MP and LOw BP; DONT BREAK BONDS, except for solid network which has a higher BP/MP than molecular compouds.
BP/ MP of Network compounds in covalent bonding is similiar to which MP and BP ? ionic
Metallic lowest MP and BP.
Metallic characteristics: Malleable(bendable) and ductile. HAS luster and shine. Electrally conductive. GOOD heat conductor
lewis dot structure look at valence e-
formal charge FC= normal( periodic) value of valence e - actual value of valence e
resonance delocalized pie e=
double bond... 1 sigma + 1 pie
triple bond... 1 sigma + 2 pie
single bond 1 sigma
Forces inbetween 2 seperate molecules intermolecular forces (only look at molecular bonds)
hydrogen bonding= strongest intermolecular forces but weaker than... covalent and ionic bonds
Capable of hydrogen bonding if... has F, O, N with lone pairs
dipole - dipole polar
ion dipole attraction weak
induced dipole forces very weak ( polar + non polar)
london dispersion forces weakest of all
found everywhere, temporary dipole, non polar things, larger u are= more london u have london dispersion ( van der waals)
highest VP/MP= lowest BP
more branching= lower BP, higher MP; crystalization faster at higher temp; lower SA, lower london dispersion forces
no branching, longest chain of C largest SA & london dispersion forces, highest BP and MP
S--> L fusion/ melting ENDO
L--> G Vaporization/ boiling ENDO
S--> G Sublimination ENDO
ENDOTHERMIC require energy; H= + and S= +
G--> L condensation EXO
L--> S crystalization EXO
G-->S Deposition EXO
EXOTHERMIC release Energy; H= - and S= -
measures CO2 and H20; CALORIES Calorimetry
Kinetic Molecular theory KE is proportional to T. Hotter the temp= faster molecules travel; pressure is due to force of molecules colliding with walls
Ideal Gas Assumptions 1. No molecular volume (good at low temp) 2. No attractive forces ( ALL COLLISIONS ARE ELASTIC) = no kinetic energy is lost (good at low T)
Pressure= F/ A
The stronger the force= higher the P
Smaller the Area= higher the P
Ideal gas law= PV= nRT
Boyles Law PV= constant/ inversely proportional
charles law V is directly proportional to T
Avagodros Law V is directionally proportional to n
combined gas law p1v1 / n1T1 = P2V2 / nT2
Dalton's law of partial pressure Ptot= Pa+ Pb+ Pc...
Partial pressure= PA= XA * Ptot
Graham's law of Effusion: r1/r2= sqrt m2/m1
effusion low ---> high ( escaping of gas from a hole)
diffusion high--->low ( entropy inc)
KE= 1/2 mv^2 same temp = same KE
lower molecular mass= higher velocity ( smell first)
solvent liquid
solute dissolve in solvent--> can be L, S, or G
1 L = 1 kg H20= 1000 g H2O
Solubility Rules: 1. All group 1 metals, NO3- ( nitrate) and NH4+ ( ammonium salt) are soluble.
Solubility Rules: 2. MOst Ag+, Pb+, Hg2 ^2+( mercury 1) are insoluble, unless number 1 is with it.
AgNO3= soluble or insoluble soluble b/c has NO3- in it
solids are more soluble at ____ Temps? high
Gasses are less soluble at _____ Temps? high
Gasses are more soluble at ____ Pressures? high
colligative properties changes with ? solute conc. and are independent of identity of solutes
More solute in conc. = ? 1. lower F.P.D 2. Lower V.P.D 3. Higher B.P.E 4. Higher O.P
colligative properties 1. F.P.D 2. V.P.D 3. B.P.E 4. O.P
No dissociation occurs if.... something is soluble (i.e. glucose and methanol)
largest # of moles= largest change in collagitive properties
highest V.P= smallest change in collagative properties ( smallest # of moles)
freezing point Depression DeltaTf= -(KfM) ; Kf= given and m = moles that dissociate
Normal freezing point of water 0 degrees C
Vapor Pressure Depression VPD= XA*PA --> PA= pure water
Boiling point Elevation DeltaTb= Kb* m ; Kb= given and m = moles that dissociate
absolute B.p = Tb original BP + Delta Tb
water boils at 100 degrees C
osmotic pressure pi= m r t; m= moles that dissociate
Kinetics rate of rxn
THermodynamics tells us everything except rate of rxn
in a rate expression products= +; reactants= -
K is inversely (oppositely) proportional to Ea so Ea1= bigger than Ea2 ...then K1<K2
slowest step Ea= largest= highest
nuclear decay Always 1st order
Keq= only shows gasses and AQ
Keq= Products / reactants can also be written as Dalton's partial pressure same way just add P
T or F...Keq can never be - ? true
K>1 products favored
K<1 reactants favored
K=1 fair amount of both reactants and products
Q< K proceeds to the right
Q> K proceeds to the left
Q=K at equilibrium
Reaction Quotient (Q) Q= P/ R
Exothermic - delta H---in products---release heat
Endothermic + delta H---needed as reactants--heat is absorbed
an inert gas== no shift Q=K
only thing that changes K is TEMP...not even a catalyst
solubility ionic solid seperating into seperate ions ( dissociating)
common ion effect adding a common ion o the rxn wil shift the rxn to the left and decrease solubility of a rxn
If Qsp> Ksp precipitate is formed
Arrhehius Defn of ACID/BASE Arrhenius acids form hydrogen ions in aqueous solution; Arrhenius bases forming hydroxide ions.
Brownsted Lowry Defn of ACID/BASE Acid= proton donor; Base= proton acceptor
Lewis Defn of ACID/BASE Acid= e- pair acceptor; Base= e- pair donor
Best Lewis acid= Boron b/c of it's empty P orbital
Created by: zrsoori
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