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Wells Philosophy

NYCC Dr. Wells Spring 3rd tri 2010

QuestionAnswer
aesthetics beauty questions Gr.
apodictic clearly proven, incontestible
apotheosis exaltation to divine stature or rank
a priori from the proceeding - conclusions already drawn from known vs. experience. Cause to effect.
apriorism ignoring evidence altogether (the "because I said so" argument)
Baconian induction/Baconionism only the 5 senses can be trusted when observing cause and effect. To err is strictly human. Answer to reductionism (which stated knowledge is discovered through reason alone, a priori with few first principles)
cosmology the metaphysical origin and structure of the universe (Carl Sagan)
cynicism denying the sincerity of a person's motives or actions; sneering, etc.
deductionism form of reasoning (necessary inference) that holds if the premises are true, then so must be the conclusion
"deductive science" oxymoron because nature is only to be learnt through inductive reasoning. Doesn't work because science can't begin with preconceived truths, particularly when the "truths" aren't observable, measurable, or capable of being operationalized. Example: 33 pr
doctrine something taught, especially the principles of a religion or political party
dogma Gr.- opinion or decree strictly adhered to
Dualism L.-containing two. Originally mind/matter. Decartes is daddy of dualism, made mind/body problem popular. Body as extension of mind - led to occasionalism: God is between mind and body. Mind decides, God moves body
empiricism the source of all knowledge is experience, observation. (Bacon-Locke-Hume). Basis of all scientific reasoning is empiricism.
epistemology deals with how we know- theories of knowledge, itself (ie, rationalism and empiricism are epistemologies or theories of knowledge)
ethics subset dealing with good and right, what is good and what is bad, etc.
Heuristic Gr.heuriskein - to find. (skein)- a guide or model (like the mechanism of disease)used as speculation or model to guide to the solution of a problem
induction (inference) reasoning that states if the premises are true then the conclusion is probably true vs. deduction which states the conclusion is definitively true
example of induction the sun has risen daily for millions of years so it will probably rise again tomorrow.
materialism matter is all there is and ideas, mind, thoughts and feelings can all be explained by physical laws
mechanism all natural phenomena can be explained by material causes and mechanical principles (clockwork universe) - opposes biology Vitalism
metaphor a figure of speech used to transfer characteristics of one thing by implicit comparison or analogy ("the body is a machine")
metaphysics Gr."after or beyond physics" -principles and problems of ultimate reality like ontology, being, what is real and what defines real
monism a system in which reality is considered a unified whole. Parmenides/Spinoza-whatever exists is part of a single substance, ie God is the world
paradigm a pattern, model, or plan. A habit of thinking, a filter that accepts or rejects data. A paradigm shift: ie, dualism to vitalism
positivism extremely positive view of science - only scientific statements are valid. Logical positivism - only science can acquire and interpret knowledge or meaning (like logical empiricism)
rationalism epistemology that states knowledge can be known by reason alone. The senses can deceive. Truth cannot depend on observation or revelation
reductionism the attempt to reduce one science or entity to another by showing the key terms of one are definable in the language of another and that the conclusions of one can be derived from the propositions of another.
example of reductionism Example – psychology can be reduced to physiology and biology can be reduced to chemistry and physics. Heat can be reduced to accelerated molecular motion and mean kinetic energy.
reification the idea that thoughts are things
science sytemized knowledge from observation and study
scientism methods used in natural sciences should be employed in all areas. Scientific method is only reliable source of knowledge
skepticism the truth of all knowledge claims must always be in question
teleology the study of design or purpose in natural phenomenon (the intelligent design thing). Teleological ethics=good. Deological ethics=do the right thing no matter if it's right for the circumstances. (ie, killing is wrong, even if it is in wartime)
vitalism biological phenomena are explained by a force or principle inherent in the organism and not reducible to chemistry or physics
Created by: hecutler