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Known Teratogens

Chemotherapeutic agents malformations malformations, IUGR, pancytopenia, CNS damage, cardiomyopathy, pregnancy loss and prematurity
Types of chemotherapeutic agents 1. Aminopterin and methotrexate
Patterns of malformations w. aminopterin and methotrexate 1. Pre and post natal growth deficiency 2. Mild MR 3. Craniofacial anomalies 4. Limb abnormalities
Critical period for chemotherapeutic agents 8-10 weeks gestation
Antihypertensives- worst ACE inhibitors
ACE inhibitors heart malformations PDA (along with IUGR, hypocalvaria, and renal tubular dysplasia)
ACE inhibitors critical period second and third trimester
Anticonvulsants potential risks: Malformations, OB complications, hemorrgage and other neonatal problems, developmental delays, behavioral problems
Anticonvulsant embryopathy Broad depressed nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nares, long philtrum, maxillary hypoplasia, fingernail hypoplasia
Anticonvulsants and meningomyelocele: Valproic acid, carbamazepine
Anticonvulsants and oral clefts Phenobarbitol, phenytoin and iamotrigine
Anticonvulsants and CHDs 1. Phenobarbitol, phenytoin and valproic acid
Critical period for anticonvulsants... None established
Low risk anticonvulsants Lactimal
Risk of Maternal Epilepsy Women with epilepsy have an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, even when they are not taking anticonvulsants...
Androgenic hormones: types DES, Fluconazole, Methimazole, Misoprostol, Penicillamine
DES adenocarcinoma (up to 20 weeks)
Methimazole (hyperthyroidism) aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp (critical period 1st trimester, usually 6 to 8 weeks)
Misoprostol limb reduction defects, CNS anomalies, hydrocephalus and encephelomalacia, arthrogryposis
Retinoids (Vit A derivs) Accutane/Isotretinoin, Streptomycin, Tetracycline, Thalidomide
Warfarin... stippled eipihyses
Warfarin is an... anticoagulant
Warfarin pattern of malformations... prenatal onset growth deficiency, mental deficiency, seizures, severe hypoplasia of the nose, epiphyseal stippling
Drugs causing clefting Thalidomide, Fluconazole (Androgenic hormone), Anticonvulsants, corticosteriods
Created by: KChatham