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1932 - 1945

APUSH Review #8

TermDescriptionSignificance
Election of 1932 Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Thirty- second president of the U.S, and served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated.
Eleanor Roosevelt Wife, mother, teacher, first lady of New York, first lady of the country, newspaper columnist, author, world traveler, diplomat, and seasoned politician. Called one of the 20th century’s most influential women.
New Deal Use of the authority government as an organized form of self help for all classes, groups, and sections of our country. Some 13,000,000 people were out of work by March, 1933.
Emergency Banking Relief Act Invested the president with power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange and to reopen solvent banks. He assured that it was now safer to keep money in a reopened bank than “under the mattress”.
Hundred Days An emergency session of Congress held from March 9 to June 16, 1933. It later enacted the memorable Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act.
Twenty-first Amendment Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized beer.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Insured individual deposits up to $5000 (later raised) Ended the disgraceful epidemic of bank failures.
Securities and Exchange Commission Designed as a watchdog administrative agency. Stock markets were to operate more as trading marts and less as gambling casinos
Civilian Conservation Corps Provided employment in fresh-air government camps for about 3 million uniformed young men. Most popular of all the New Deal “alphabetical agencies.”
Federal Emergency Relief Administration Immediate relief rather than long range recovery. Granted about $3 billion to the states for direct dole payments or preferably for wages on work projects.
Civil Works Administration Designed to provide purely temporary jobs during the cruel winter emergency. Tens of thousands of jobless were employed at leaf raking and other make- work tasks.
Works Progress Administration Employment on useful projects. Over a period of eight years, nearly 9 million people were given jobs.
Agricultural Adjustment Act To establish “parity prices” for basic commodities. Was killed by the Supreme Court in 1936 by declaring its regulatory taxation provisions unconstitutional.
United States v. Butler A case when the Supreme Court of the U.S ruled unconstitutional the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act. : Justice Owen Josephus Roberts argued that the tax was an “unconstitutional end” that violated the 10th amendment.
National Industrial Recovery Act Established codes of fair competition aimed at supporting prices and wages and stimulating economic revival from the Great Depression. The law created a National Recovery Administration to promote compliance on the part of corporations.
Public Works Administration Intended both for industrial recovery, and for employment relief. It was also intended for long range recovery. An achievement from it was the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River.
National Recovery Administration Designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. Workers were formally guaranteed the right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing.
Tennessee Valley Authority To discover precisely how much the production and distribution of electricity cost. The most revolutionary of all the New Deal schemes.
Dust Bowl The sun being darkened by millions of tons of powdery top soil torn from homesteads in an area that stretched from eastern Colorado to western Missouri. Overawed victims of the Dust Bowl disaster predicted the end of the world or the second coming.
The Grapes of Wrath A moving tale of the Joad family’s migration out of the Oklahoma Dust Bowl to depression-era California. Americans that were forced to endure this misery aroused intense indignation among millions of readers.
Federal Housing Administration Set up to speed recovery and better homes. Proved to be one of the few “alphabetical agencies” to outlast the age of Roosevelt.
Richard Wright Famous black author. Made the bestseller lists.
Second New Deal Some thought the first New Deal did too much and created a big deficit. This led FDR to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935.
Al Smith Four-time governor of New York and first Catholic presidential candidate. One of the most colorful personalities in American politics.
Huey P. Long, Jr. Governor of Louisiana, even while he ruled the state with a dictatorial hand. Publicized his “Share Our Wealth” program.
Francis E. Townsend A retired physician whose savings had just been wiped out. Attracted the trusting support of perhaps 5 million senior citizens.
Father Charles E. Coughlin A catholic priest in Michigan who began broadcasting in 1930. Defeated President Roosevelt’s effort to win Senate ratification of a treaty providing for Americans membership in the World Court.
Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States The learned justices unanimously held that congress could not delegate legislative powers to the executive. They further declared that congressional control of interstate commerce could not properly apply to a local fowl business.
National Labor Relations Board For administrative purposes and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively through representatives of its own choice. Proved to be one of the real milestones on the rocky road of the U.S. labor movement.
Social Security Act One of the most complicated and far-reaching laws ever to pass congress. By 1939, over 45 million people were eligible for Social Security benefits.
Revenue Act of 1935 Known as the Wealth Tax Act. Increased income tax rates for wealthy Americans and corporations.
Election of 1936 Democrats renominated Roosevelt on a platform squarely endorsing the New Deal. FDR won primarily because he appealed to the “forgotten man,” whom he never forgot.
Court-packing plan The scheme to pack the Supreme Court with justices that were more agreeable to Roosevelt’s New Deal. Was further undermined and hurt Roosevelt’s reputation.
American Federation of Labor Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members. It is a federation of different unions.
Committee for Industrial Organization Within the ranks of the skilled-craft American Federation of Labor. Finally won a resounding victory when its union was recognized by General Motors as the sole bargaining agency for its employers.
United Auto Workers Officially the United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural implement workers of America International Union. One of the largest labor unions in North America, with more than 700,000 members in the U.S, Canada, and Puerto Rico.
United States Housing Authority Designed to lend money to states or communities for low cost construction. For the first time in a century, the slum areas in America ceased growing and even shrank.
Committee on Un-American Activities House of Representatives committee designed to investigate disloyalty and subversive organizations. Was abolished in 1975.
Martin Dies A lawyer represented Texas as a Democratic member of the U.S House of Representatives Was notorious for its exposes of alleged communist infiltration into U.S business and government.
Reparations As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the allies to repay the costs of the war. It quickly led to a severe depression in Germany.
Isolationism Reigned in the Coolidge era. The Senate proved unwilling to allow America to adhere to the World Court.
Disarmament Naval disarmament and the situation in the Far East Went to all the major naval powers except Bolshevik Russia, whose government the U.S refused to recognize.
Five- Power Naval Treaty (1922) Embodied Hughes’s ideas on ship ratios. Only was offered to the insecure Japanese.
Four-Power Treaty Replaced the twenty-year-old Anglo-Japanese alliance. Bound Britain, Japan, France, and the United States to preserve the status quo in the Pacific.
The Nine Power Treaty The USA, Belgium, the British Empire, China France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands and Portugal agreed to guarantee China’s independence and maintained an Open Door Policy. US regained the moral influence it lost by not joining the League of Nations.
Kellogg-Briand Pact Also known as the Pact of Paris, is a treaty between the US and other nations “providing for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy.” The pact is a binding treaty under international law and, from a technical legal point of view, it remains in force as part of the supreme positive law of the US, under Article VI of the US Constitution. It was intended as a pact to end war.
“Good Neighbor” Policy Under FDR’s leadership the US emphasized cooperation and trade with Latin America rather than military force to maintain stability in the hemisphere. Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor policy represented an attempt to distance the US from earlier interventionist policies, such as the Roosevelt Corollary and military interventions in the region during the 1910’s and 1920’s.
Manchukuo Manchukuo was a nominally independent puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. With Japanese investment and rich natural resources, the area became an industrial powerhouse. Eventually, Japanese became the official language taught in Manchukuo schools and Shinto became the national religion.
Benito Mussolini Ruled Italy as a dictator from 1922 to 1943. He created fascist state through the use of state terror and propaganda. Using his charisma, total control of the media and intimidation of political rivals, he disassembled the existing democratic government His entry into WWII on the side of Nazi Germany made Italy a target for Allied attacks and ultimately led to his downfall and death.
Adolf Hitler Was leader of the Natioanl Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party (1921-1945) and Fuhrer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor) of Germany during the Third Reich(1933-1945). His belief in the racial superiority of the “Aryans” led to the Holocaust, the most brutal, organized and systemic attempt at genocide the world has seen, which resulted in the death of 6 million Jews, most of European Jewry.
Bolsheviks The Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized power in Russia in 1917, a world- historical event known as the October Revolution. Shortly after the Bolsheviks seized power during the Russian Revolution of 1917, they changed their name to the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in 1918 and were generally known as the Communist Party after that point.
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo “Axis” The Axis Powers is a term for the loose alliance of participants in World War II led by Germany, Italy, and Japan. The three major Axis powers referred to themselves as the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis. The Axis powers were opposed by the Allies and ultimately defeated in World War II.
Anshluss The general German term Anshluss is part of the specific political incident Anschluss Osterreichs referring to the inclusion of Austria in a “Greater Germany” in 1938. Annexed Austria as part of Germany and disbanded the Austro-Hungarian empire.
Czechoslovakia Was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the WWII period). It was the most industrialized part of the former Austria-Hungary, was a democratic republic throughout the pre-WWII period, but had ethnic problems After the Munich Agreement of 1938, Hitler’s troops invaded the Sudentenland. Czechoslovakia ceased to exist on March 1939, when Hitler occupied whole of the Czech lands and (the remaining) Slovakia was forced to declare independence.
Neutrality Act of 1935 The Neutrality Act of 1935 prohibited American citizens from selling arms to belligerents in international war. It resulted from Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia. Prohibited sales of arms to nations engaged in war.
Spanish Civil War Was the result of complex political differences between the Republicans, mostly subscribing to electoral democracy, and the Nationalists, who rebelled against that government and had a primarily rural and more conservative power base. Ended in the defeat of the Republicans, resulting in the fascist dictatorship of Francisco Franco.
Francisco Franco Dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. Also known as Generalismo Francisco Franco. Full Name: Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teodulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Adnrade. Known as el “Caudillo de Espana”, and officially as “Caudillo de Espana por la gracia de Dios” (The Leader of Spain by the grace of God), presided over the authoritarian government of the Spanish State following victory in the Spanish Civil War.
Blitzkreig German for “lightning war” was an operational-level military doctrine which employed mobile forces attacking with speed and surprise to prevent an enemy from organizing a coherent defense The aim is hit as hard and as fast against the enemy as possible and to leave them dumbfounded and reeling from the attack.
Battle of Britain A major campaign of World War II, the Battle of Britain is the name for the attempt by Germany’s Luftwaffe to gain control of British airspace production and intimidate the nation into neutrality or surrender. Britain’s defeat in this battle would have meant that Germany would have taken over Britain (they already had plans for what they would do after they took over) and would have made it more difficult, if not impossible for the Allies to beat back the Ger
Winston Churchill A British politician, best known as Prime Minister of The United Kingdom during WWII. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and legislator, Churchill is generally regarded as one of the most important leaders in British and world history.
Wendell Wilkie A lawyer, born in Elwood, Indiana on February 18, 1892, the only native of Indiana to be nominated as the presidential candidate for a national party. In 1940 he was the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. Wilkie lost the election to Franklin D. Roosevelt. After the election, Wilkie became one of Roosevelt’s most unlikely allies.
Election of 1936 Presidential elections held in 1936, Roosevelt (Democrat), Alfred M. Landon (Republican) and William Lemke (Union). Roosevelt won.
“Lend-Lease” Program On the 11th of March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. The legislation gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, and lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers. A sum of $50 billion was appropriated by Congress for Lend-Lease. The money went to 38 different countries with Britain receiving over $31 billion. Over the next few years the British government repaid $650 million of this sum.
Erwin Rommel Erwin Johannes Eugene Rommel was one of the most distinguished German Field Marshals and commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps in WWII. He is also known by his nickname The Desert Fox Commander of Nazi German forces in Africa and at the battle of Al-Alamein.
Tri-Partite Pact Three Power Pact between Germany, Italy, and Japan. Their prime purpose was to establish and maintain a new order of things calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned.
General Douglas MacArthur An American military leader. He is the most decorated soldier in the history of the US military. He served in the US army most of his life, taking part in three major wars (WWI, WWII, Korean War) and rising to the rank of General of the Army. MacArthur remains one of the most controversial figures in American history. While greatly admired by many for his strategic and tactical brilliance, MacArthur is also criticized by many for his actions in command.
Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor was one of the defining moments in history. A single carefully planned and well-executed stroke removed the US battleships. Sparked US entrance into WWII.
Kamikaze A fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in WWII. A trained pilot who was willing to commit suicide. It is designed to meet the highest expectations of martial arts.
Philippines Became a Spanish colony during the 16th century: they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1933 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth.
Coral Sea Fought in the waters southwest of the Solomon Islands and eastward from New Guinea. It was the first of the Pacific War’s six fights between opposing aircraft carrier forces.
Midway Fought over and near the tiny US mid-Pacific base at Midway Atoll. This represents the strategic high water mark of Japan’s Pacific Ocean War. The two opposing fleets were essentially equals.
War Production Board US government agency. It was established by the executive branch. This was to direct war production and the procurement of materials in WWII.
Office of Price Administration Established to prevent wartime inflation. The OPA issued a general maximum price regulation that made prices charged in March 1942, the ceiling prices for most commodities.
Rosie the Riveter The woman depicted on many of the propaganda posters. Wearing a red and white bandana to cover her hair, and she has rolled back the sleeve of her blue coverall to expose a flexed bicep. Symbolized women factory workers of WWII.
Internment of Japanese Americans US government forced more than 120,000 to leave their homes to live in camps. Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 9066. It permitted the military to bypass safeguards in the name of the National defense.
Nazis Followers of Hitler, racist, a member of the German National Socialist party Came to power under the leadership of Hitler.
Dwight D. Eishenhower He was the 34th president of the US. Served 2 terms from 1953-1961. Born October 14, 1890 in Desion, Texas. He proposed that the US and Russia exchange blueprints of military establishments. His goal was to maintain world peace. Instrumental in WWII in North Africa and D-Day.
Casablanca Meeting Meeting between Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. They planned future global military strategy for the western allies.
Axis Powers Coalition of countries that opposed the allied powers in WWII. It came to a formal end when the allies ratified the unconditional surrender of Germany on May 8th 1945.
Allies Powers Name given to any of several alliances ratified the unconditional surrender Germany, Italy, and Japan. Included Britain, the United States, and Russia
Battle of the Atlantic War between Germany and Britain. After a few years Germany was forced to surrender the victory went to the Britain.
Luftwaffe German air force during WWII Germans were very good at aerial combats.
Teheran Meeting Held between the 2 Cairo conferences between Frank Roosevelt and Minister Churchill. A separate agreement was signed by the Big Three promising to maintain Iran’s independence.
D-Day Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops stormed the beaches at Normandy and begun the process of re-taking France. Assembled the largest force in the history of amphibious warfare and represented a major turning point in World War II
Operation Overlord The 1944 Allied assault on Nazi occupied northern Europe. Code name for the D-Day invasion
Douglass MacArthur An American General, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during WWII. Served as a chairman of the board of the Ramington Rond Cooperation supervised the postwar occupation of Japan, which led UN forces during the Korean War.
Leapfrogging To advance military units by having one engage the enemy while the other passes around the battle Technique used by Americans in the Pacific front of WWII
Admiral Nimitz Helped lead the US to victory 252 line and staff admirals and commandoes. Open pursuit of permanent higher ranks of WWII.
Battle of Leyte Gulf It was a 3 day battle Japanese and Americans lost a lot of their ships in the battle. Including the Japanese ship called the Musashi.
Election of 1944 Roosevelt’s fourth election to office. Truman was chosen as vice president.
Battle of the Bulge Largest land battle of WWII. Defeat of Germany. America, Germany, and Britain were involved.
Yalta City in the Ukraine which earned worldwide attention in 1945. Site of the Yalta Conference among the “Big Three” powers of WWII.
Big Three Nickname given to the Allied leaders of WWII Included Churchill (Britain), FDR (USA), and Stalin (Russia)
Third Reich Name given to Germany during the years 1933 - 1945 The country was under control of the Nazi party under Adolf Hitler.
Iwo Jima A volcanic island. It’s the war land between Japan and the US. It was officially declared secured on March 17: resistance was not extinguished until 9 days later. The US won the war against Japan.
Manhattan Project Physicists the world over recognized the possibility of utilizing the enormous energy released in this atomic reaction. Seen as the starting point for a quality change in weaponry that figured large in the postwar arms race.
Harry S. Truman 33rd president of the US Initiated the foreign policy of containing communism. Also he helped to centralize power in the executive branch.Initiated the foreign policy of containing communism. Also he helped to centralize power in the executive branch.
Potsdam Declaration Signed by the US and Britain only. It calls for Japan to surrender but gave assurances that would be treated humanely. American delegation disturbed by indications of Russian non-cooperation, left Potsdam in a far less optimistic mood.
Unconditional Surrender US’s demand for Japan Japan’s refusal led to the American use of atomic bombs
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cities in Western and Southwestern Japan. Both Japanese islands were hit with nuclear bombs by the US.
Created by: shellenberger