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1915 - 1931

APUSH Review #7

TermDescriptionSignificance
World War I A war between the allies (Russia, France, the British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918 First war that involved the entire world
Triple Alliance Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente Made the war larger than two countries
Triple Entente Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection Made the war larger than two countries
Trench Warfare A type of combat in which the enemies fight from a system of trenches Allowed soldiers to shoot and be protected at the same time
U- Boats A submarine of the German navy Led to German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare
Lusitania May 7, 1915, British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war and eventually sunk Germany promised to stop submarine warfare
Election of 1916 The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform Promised to keep the peace
Zimmerman telegram Telegram sent to the German ambassador from the German minister suggesting an alliance between Mexico and Germany It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilize against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.
General John J. Pershing Military general who led his 11 thousand-man troops into Mexico to chase Villa A year passed and the general didn’t find Villa. Carranza forced war on the bandits and put through a liberal constitution
Selective Service Act of 1917 and 1918 All men between the ages of 21-30 (later 18-45) had to register for the service By the time the lottery came around 24 million men were registered only 2 million Americans crossed the Atlantic and about 1.4 saw combat
Herbert Hoover He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution. Raised crop production while he reduced civilian use like “meatless Tuesdays”
Great Migration Northern business sent recruiting agents into the Deep South to find workers for their factories and mills, and over 400,000 southern blacks African Americans living in the north had rippled from the 1910 levels
George Creel Organized a propaganda machine to convey the allies war aims to people where it might encouraged the forces of moderation Mobilized public opinions
Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 Effectively outlawed criticism of government leaders and war policies These laws led to more than 1500 prosecutions 1000 convictions
Schenck v. United States Circulated a flyer to drafted men. The flyer cited the 13 amendments provision against “involuntary servitude” Charged with conspiracy recently drafted soldiers to petition
October Revolution The Russian government succumbed to a revolution, which promised the Russian people, “Peace, land, and Bread” The Central Powers were now free to concentrate their forces on the western front
Western Front Series of battles that took place in 1918 during WWI Second Battle of Marne was the turning point. The allied morale was decreased
Second Battle of the Marne American troops retook Cantiguy and held it. A marine brigade blocked the Germany Belleau Wood. It had little military significance, their effort and allied morale was great
Meuse- Argonne Employed American divisions in a drive toward the rail center at Sedan - It supplied the entire German front. The largest American action of the war, it cost 117,000 American casualties, including 26,000 dead.
“Reds” Nickname of the Russian Communists The Bolsheviks were able to obtain their power, defeat the “whites”, and withdraw from the WWI. The Russians therefore they didn’t participate in the peace settlements
Fourteen Points Wilson’s ideas that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty His most important was the League of Nations
Paris Peace Conference President Wilson and the prime ministers of France, Britain, and Italy met in Paris on January 18, 1919 Hoped to end the war
League of Nations Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Would provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without having to resort to war.
Versailles Treaty The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WWI on June 28, 1919. Created the League of Nations
Henry Cabot Lodge Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with crisis Was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty
Spanish Flu During postwar life many Americans came down with the flu More people died of the flu than in the war (22 million world wide and 500,000+ were Americans)
Red Scare In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S. 4,000 “Communists” were jailed, some were deported
Nativism An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840’s and 1850’s and again after WWI. Limited immigration
Sacco and Vanzetti Convicted on circumstantial evidence Demonstrates the fear Americans had for immigrants
Ku Klux Klan Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. Its peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929
Fundamentalism Protestant movement grounded in a liberal in interpretation of the Bible They were skeptical of scientific knowledge and argued that all the knowledge people needed was in the Bible
Scopes “Monkey” Trial Prosecution of Dayton John Scopes for violation of the Butler Act. evolution vs. Creation
William Jennings Bryan prosecuted the case “Monkey Trial” Scopes was convicted and fined $100
Clarence Darrow Defended Scopes in the “Monkey Trial” Scopes was convicted and fined $100
Prohibition 1919, the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. generated disrespect for the law but had other harmful effects
Women’s Christian Temperance Union group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol Influenced government to ban alcohol during the1920s
Eighteenth Amendment The manufacture, sale or transportation of alcohol into the U.S. was prohibited. The first bootleggers came about
Al Capone An Italian crime boss in Chicago Created organized crime
Jazz Age African and European musical tradition blended together Produced new music
The Jazz Singer first feature length introducing sound into pictures Films became more popular
Flappers A fashion rebellion against prudishness Women became more liberated to make own choices
F. Scott Fitzgerald A famous writer whose works include The Great Gatsby Showed life in the 1920’s
Nineteenth Amendment Constitutional amendment passed in 1920 Women were allowed to vote
Harlem Renaissance Blacks showed a cultural expression in literary and artistic movement Harlem was a center for blacks
Marcus Garvey Black leader who advocated “black nationalism” Give blacks more reason to fight for equal rights
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Promote more blacks to fight for equal rights
Albert Einstein German physicist Made other scientists research the unknown including the atom
Werner Heisenberg Pioneering German physicist Proved that human knowledge had limits
Ezra Pound Leader of imagist movement New form of poetry was introduced
T.S. Eliot Poet in America during WWI; born in St. Louis In 1948 Eliot received the Nobel Prize for literature during a fellowship stay at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study
Ernest Hemingway Wrote Farewell to Arms Influenced the development of twentieth century fiction
William Faulkner New southern Writer A triumph of modern style
Election of 1920 Republican, Warren G. Harding ran against democrat James Cox This was the first election in which all women were allowed to vote
Warren G. Harding 29th president of the U.S. Only served 27 months into his term of presidency before dying of pneumonia
Andrew Mellon A wealthy banker helped organize Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh
Teapot Dome scandal Albert Fall illegally leased oil to Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny Fall received gifts from the oilmen totaling about $404,000
Ohio Gang A group of officials within Warren G. Harding’s administration Committed scandals like the Teapot Dome scandal
Election of 1924 Coolidge ran against Davis Coolidge won the election
Calvin Coolidge The 30th president of the U.S became the first President of the United States to deliver a political speech
Babbit Novel by Sinclair Lewis Showed the power of conformity
Federal Communications Commission A radio commison that regulated industry Made radio popular
Wright brothers Made first airplane Introduced new form of technology
Model T Ford’s first car Pioneered the assembly line
Yellow Dog contract a legal contract or agreement made between an employer and an employee prevented an employee from working for other employers in the same industry
Election of 1928 Hoover vs. Smith Herbert Hoover won
Herbert Hoover 30th president of the U.S. signed an act that made The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem
Stock Market Crash of 1929 Much debt, stock prices spiraling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S led to the Great Depression
Great Depression Millions were out of work Hoover and Roosevelt took different approaches to handle the depression
Hooverilles Shacks of tarpaper and iron along city dumps and railroad tracks. Caused Hoover not to win re-election
Reconstruction Finance Corporation Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
Bonus Expeditionary Force Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
Created by: shellenberger