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FDLE OBJ- Patrol 2


In/formal org./assoc./group as 1 of prim. activities, commits criminal/delinquent acts, & has 3 or more who have a common name/ID signs/colors/symbols & have 2 or more who, ind./collectively, engage in/have engaged in a pattern of criminal street gang act Criminal street gang (BoB)
Any formal or informal association of individuals acting in concert or independently to advocate violence and/or the illegal disruption of the lawful activities of others; it can be domestic or international Extremist group (BoB)
A resource to guide a first responder's initial actions to a HAZMAT incident including the identification of hazardous materials, areas of personal protection, and initial safety plan Emergency Response Guidebook (BoB)
A substance that may cause harm, serious injury, or death to humans and animals, or harm the environment Hazardous material (HAZMAT) (BoB)
The level of competency expected or required during the performance of a service or a duty Standard of care (BoB)
The materials or devices designed to release energy very rapidly Explosives (BoB)
Flammable, non-flammable, poisonous, or corrosive materials stored in containers under pressure Gases (BoB)
The distance that people should stay from a hazardous spill Protective action distance (BoB)
An acronym that stands for Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear Explosives CBRNE (BoB)
A weapon that derives its destructive power from an uncontrolled nuclear reaction Nuclear weapon (BoB)
Any large gathering has potential for danger and must be approached cautiously; sheer numbers can be overwhelming for responding officers. Along with numbers the officers must consider the following: Size, organization and mood of crowd plays major factor
Even though non-hostile crowds are more passive, officers when dealing with large should never become Complacent, things can change quickly. Officer safety is main concern
When officers observe the crowd they should be looking for and identifying weapons or potential weapons such as Broken bottles and blunt edged objects
When arresting a member of a large crowd officers must realize that an attack may come from any direction since the anonymity of a crowd emboldens aggressive individuals officers should always: Have an exit strategy, prevent crowds from cornering them or limiting their ability to exit scene
If a situation looks like it could escalate it may be safe and practical for officers to call for assistance and wait for back up before acting because: A show of force or presence in numbers can be extremely persuasive in calming crowd
Officers can identify why a group has formed, understand group goals and possible solutions for a peaceful dispersal by looking for: Signs and symbols on clothing, listening to words or phrases yelled or chanted by crowd
An important part of dispersing crowds and resolving group incidents is: Determining the leader or instigator
Officers can identify the leader or instigator of a crowd by observing the crowd interaction and asking these questions: Who does the it rally behind? Who does all the talking? Who seems to stand out the most, talking the loudest or prompting the activity? Or by asking individuals in the crowd
After the leader or responsible person of a crowd has been identified the officers should: Separate leader from crowd and interview him or her
Allows an officer to speak to the leader without the support of the group Isolation
Are essential in resolving conflicts involving many people: Good communication skills
To encourage cooperation officers must speak in a: Professional manner
Is a major factor in subduing a situation when dealing with a large group: Leader's willingness to cooperate
May turn a peaceful event violent during the initial contact: Threatening to arrest someone
An officer should request professionally that the leader comply with: Laws and ordinances
Independent criminal violations may occur in a crowd such as: Underage drinking or illegal narcotic usage
An officer's primary responsibilities involve: Protecting life, restoring order and maintaining the peace
An officer can sometimes use the laws being violated as tools to dissuade individuals from becoming Aggressive or hostile
If an officer expects to make a physical arrest of a member of the crowd officers should: Observe the crowd's actions, determine what law is violated, and identify the violator
The United States Constitution's First Amendment allows: People to peaceably assemble
The Florida Statues can apply to Assemblies or groups
The Florida Statue for the following is, Breach of the Peace; Disorderly Conduct F.S. 877.03
The Florida Statue for the following is, Unlawful Assemblies F.S. 870.02
The Florida Statue for the following is, Affrays and Riots F.S. 870.01
The Florida Statue for the following is, Disorderly Intoxication F.S. 856.011
An officer's duty is to determine if the demonstration or gathering is lawful based on state statues and as long as they: Cause no disturbance and act within the scope of the state laws and city or county ordinances
One of the most dangerous population groups that a law enforcement officer may encounter is A criminal street gang
What separates street gangs from other associations is Criminal intent and organized criminal activity
A number of Florida gangs may be influenced by or have connections to gangs in other states these relationships are known as Affiliations or alliances
Affiliations or alliances are important to local gangs because they bring together a diverse population with various: Levels of criminal experience and connections to gangs in other states
A type of gang with a growing national and worldwide membership it the Outlaw motorcycle gang
A major source of income for the outlaw motorcycle gangs is Manufacturing and distributing of methamphetamine
Outlaw motorcycle gangs promote illegal activities by forming criminal alliances with: Independent methamphetamine cookers, street gangs, and organized crime groups
Hundreds of gangs throughout the United States are associated by name under the Los Angeles based Bloods and Crips
Not all gangs are affiliated with a lager, more well-known group, some operate in Small rural towns, upper-middle-class neighborhoods, schools, and other areas
The MS-13 gang which is one of the most violently dangerous and well-organized gangs in the U.S. is also known as the Mara Salvatrucha 13
The MS-13 is unique that it retains ties to its El Salvador counterparts
Members sport tattoos on their bodies and faces and wear blue and white MS-13, color of El Salvadoran flag
As a result of drug trade and gang wars many leaders and members end up in Federal and state prisons
Play a prominent role in the makeup of associated gang members Race and ethnicity
In Florida gangs are overwhelmingly populated by Young males aged 13-23
Gang members are often products or ----- ----- or ------- and come from a Child abuse or neglect, disadvantaged socio-economic background
A few characteristics of gang members are that they are School dropouts, unemployed, and frequently in trouble with law enforcement
The general structure of gangs can be broken down in four categories: "Wannabes", Associates, Regular members, Leaders
This category of gang member is described as: potential members on the fringe, not yet accepted "Wannabes"
This category of gang member is described as: not officially gang members but accepted to some degree and participate on a limited basis in the gang's social and criminal activities Associates
This category of gang member is described as: are initiated members who usually participate in the gang's social and criminal activities, tend to back up hard-core members Regular members
This category of gang member is described as: fully committed to gang life, very influential in the gang, determine activities and establish its level of violence leaders
Youths at the level of associate in a gang can become dangerous because They may be more willing to resort to violent behavior to gain acceptance
Is a motivating factor for many young people is the Prestige or power, belonging or friendship
Problems within the home or family may lead youth to look to a gang for A role model, way to deal with social relationships, and adjustment problems
Sometimes joining a gang gives members a sense of Identity
Another enticement is the opportunity for Financial gain
Gang members use these as nonverbal communication device among themselves and with other gangs to identify themselves other members and promote gang solidarity Graffiti, tattoos, hand signs and colors
Law enforcement officers should become familiar with gang Symbols and/or activities in their patrol area
Gang members may express affiliation by wearing certain types of Clothing, jewelry, bandannas, hats, and various haircuts and styles
Violent altercations and ultimate humiliation can occur when one gang disrespects a Rival gang's symbols
Is an initial indicator of gang presence in an area Graffiti
Gangs us graffiti to Stake out or declare their presence
Closely monitoring graffiti helps officers keep track of gang conflicts and can aid In developing a roster of members
Gangs use colors that have specific meanings to gang members and are part of a gang's ideology, they use tattoos to Identify a member of a particular gang, make a statement, or honor a fallen gang member
Are made by forming letters or numbers with hands and fingers to communicate gang affiliation and/or to challenge rival gangs Signals
Extremist group can also be called or has similar characteristics as: Terrorist group
Is terrorist activity conducted by a group or individuals who are U.S. citizens operating within the U.S. or its territories Domestic terrorism
Domestic extremist groups are divided into sub-groups depending on their motivations and their aim is to Change the United States by creating revolutionary movements
They believe in racial supremacy, embrace anti-government and anti-regulatory beliefs Right-wing
Generally profess a revolutionary socialist doctrine and view themselves as protectors of the people against capitalism and imperialism Left-wing
Involves violent criminal acts intended to coerce or intimidate civilians or influence government policy International terrorism
International terrorism groups primary objective is to Plan and implement large-scale, high-profile, high-casualty attacks against U.S. interests and citizens and those of its allies worldwide
International terrorism groups are divided into three sub-groups and they are: International Islamic jihad movement, formalized terrorist organizations, and state-sponsored terrorist groups
Militias refuse to recognize the authority of Municipal, state and federal governments. They consider law enforcement officers as representatives of the government.
Militia members often train for preemptive attacks or ambushes by the government and are often arrest for Weapons violations
Some extremist groups known to Florida law enforcement can be placed in these major categories: Anti-abortion groups, militias, animal rights groups, racist (hate) groups, and international extremists
Florida currently has -- active extremist groups 70
A crucial law enforcement duty when pertaining to extremist groups is staying informed about their: Presence and activities in U.S. communities
Establishes safe and uniform guidelines for response to incidents involving hazardous material or weapons or mass destruction An agency Emergency Response Plan (ERP)
Officers should be familiar with agency ERPs to respond properly to HAZMAT situations and the significances of the goals of the ERPs, which are to: Protect the public and secure the scene while safeguarding responders
"Standard of care" dictates that officers act appropriately when serving the public and an officer's actions are influenced at a hazardous materials incident by: Numerous laws, regulations, and standards
During the first critical minutes of HAZMAT incidents first responders can greatly increase chances of survival by following: Agency's ERP and standard operating procedures (SOP)
Public safety employees have a duty to act to an incident but the responders should not: Exceed the level of their training and equipment
Outlines the first responder's initial, basic actions and an initial safety plan: ERG (Emergency Response Guidebook)
Responders to a hazardous materials incident conduct operations in two modes depending on the training of the individual, they are: Defensive modes or offensive modes
When a responder employ their level of training, available equipment, or degree of the incident prohibits further control of the incident, they are using this mode: Defensive mode
When a responder is placed in close proximity to or in contact with the hazardous material or its vapors and gases, they are employing this mode: Offensive mode
Responders employing offensive modes when responding to hazardous materials, they should: Take action only after a thorough risk vs. benefit analysis, and only properly trained and protected technician-level responders engage in offensive operations
The following is example of an officer using what mode of operation: Awaiting remote shut-off of a gas valve Offensive mode
There are five levels of training for hazardous materials, they are: Awareness, operational, hazardous material technician, hazardous materials specialist, hazardous materials incident commander
At this level a person initiates the emergency response sequence and notifies authorities of the release: Awareness level
At this level a person with training takes defensive action to contain the release and/or secure the area Operational level
At this level a person responds by taking offensive action to control a spill or leak Hazardous material technician
At this level a person has the expert knowledge to support the hazardous material technician Hazardous materials specialist
At this level a person assumes command of the incident above the operational level and has received additional training in the methods needed to implement the employer's emergency response plan Hazardous materials incident commander
First responders at the awareness level have only four responsibilities or goals and they are: Recognition/identification, isolation, protection, notification
At this level of awareness the first responders must know the incident involves hazardous materials and if possible should identify the materials Recognition/identification
At this level of awareness the first responders has the ability to deny or restrict access to the involve area and remove uninjured and uncontaminated persons from that area Isolation
At this level of awareness the first responders involve ensuring the safety of the officer and the public. If has proper training and equipment, protection may include using Protection
At this level of awareness the first responders inform the next level of response as defined in the employer's ERP Notification
Is referred to as a structure and its use Occupancy
Is referred to as an area and its use Location
Manufacturing facilities, storage facilities, retail establishments and residences are also referred to as: Occupancy
Agricultural areas, industrial parks, business districts and residential neighborhoods are also known as: Location
Details that may affect the first responder's reaction to a potential hazard may include: Traffic patterns, time of day, inhabitants, and type of location
Illicit drug labs present unique dangers such as Chemical hazards and booby traps
Clues indicating a drug lab include: Unusual traffic at odd hours, heavy chemical odors, or fortification
Containers can be generally identified by being one of these three types, they are Fixed, transportable, or portable
Containers designed to transport materials safely identifies this type of container Transportable
Containers are permanent structures containing materials identifies this type of container Fixed
Containers can be moved easily from location to location, such as propane tanks Portable
These are required by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to identify the hazard class of a material Labels and placards
Placards and labels appear on all four sides of a Vehicle, railcar, or other large container and on individual packages of the material
The absence of a placard does not indicate: The absence of hazardous materials
Anything that holds two or more classes of hazardous materials must display this instead of the specific placard for each class of material "DANGEROUS" placard
"DANGEROUS" placard cannot be used for materials such as Explosives and toxic gases
These materials burn in the presence of an ignition source Flammable and combustible liquids
Are materials that burn in the presence of an ignition source, some ignite spontaneously or in the presence of heat or friction, others are dangerous when wet Flammable solids
May yield oxygen, cause or heighten the combustion of other material Oxidizing substances
Are not a gas and are known to be toxic to humans Poisonous materials
These are hazardous materials are subject to DOT transportation regulations but do not belong to Classes 1-8 Miscellaneous dangerous goods
Class 1 refers to Explosives
Class 2 refers to Gases
Class 3 refers to Flammable and combustible liquids
Class 4 refers to Flammable solids
Class 5 refers to Oxidizing substances
Class 6 refers to Poisonous materials
Class 7 refers to Radioactive materials
Class 8 refers to Corrosive substances
Class 9 refers to Miscellaneous dangerous goods
Dynamite, blackpowder, and small arms ammunition are considered to be: Explosives - Class 1
Acetylene, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia are considered to be: Gases - Class 2
Gasoline, diesel fuel, and acetone are considered to be: Flammable and combustible liquids - Class 3
Magnesium, sulfur, and calcium carbide are considered to be: Flammable solids - Class 4
Molten sulfur, PCBs (Poly-chlorinated biphenyls), hazardous wasted are considered to be: Miscellaneous dangerous goods - Class 9
Itemize all hazardous materials during any mode of transport Shipping papers
Law requires employers to maintain Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for any hazardous substance: Stored , manufactured, or used in the workplace
May also include emergency response plans, action plans, and documents describing that materials present: Facility papers
To help identify a material's hazard classification an officer can use placards and labels, and specifically relating to placards and labels should make note of: Colors
The DOT has established a four digit numbering system know as: United Nations/North American (UN/NA)
Officers can cross-reference the ID numbers in the index of the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) by finding the number on the Orange panel on the container, placard, or shipping papers or packaging
The diamond-shaped symbol is divided into four segments that indicate the following risk: Health (Blue), Flammability (Red), Reactivity (Yellow), Other (White)
In each segment of the diamond-shaped symbol is a number from 0 to 4 indicates the material's relative hazard: a 0 indicates -- ------ and a 4 indicates the ------- ------ No hazard, highest hazard
The area of the diamond-shaped symbol that provides other information or various special hazards of the material is the: White area
Accurate material identification helps an officer to Completely and accurately asses a situation
It is important that awareness-level responders do not put themselves at risk in the process of Identifying the material
To help identify the material officers may have to examine documents/shipping papers or Conduct interviews with the transport driver or facility staff
Employees, vehicle drivers, and bystanders may be able to Identify the product
To avoid risk to persons and property officers should rely on Agency policies and procedures
When responding to any potential HAZMAT situation an officer should do so with extreme caution and from upwind, if unable to from upwind the next choice is Crosswind
The main objectives in isolating an area of potential HAZMAT situation is: To isolate without entering the area, keep people away from scene, ensure people are upwind and out of low lying areas
Officers should prevent direct contamination by avoiding contact with the Product, gases and vapors, or smoke
Officers should prevent secondary contamination resulting from contact with items or persons who have not: Been properly decontaminated
Officers should not allow anyone or anything to leave the area without Evaluation for decontamination by qualified, properly protected personnel
The Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) contains the sections: Public safety and Emergency Response
Officers should advise other responders to a HAZMAT situation of: Incident conditions, material(s) involved, amount of material, safe approach information, guide page to use, resources needed, and actions taken
To use protective clothing officers are required to have: Proper training
After officers isolate the immediate are the next step is to Evacuate or protect persons downwind or within the radius of the incident (depending on whether material spilled or is involved in fire)
How far away people should stay from a spill, or the Protective Action Distance, responder's should use this subsection to locate the information Evacuation subsection
If the materials entry in the ERG is highlighted, officers should consult the: Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances
BLEVE stands for Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
Fire creates the potential for an Explosion or BLEVE (Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion)
Recommendations about the in-depth information found in the ERG depends on the spill's Size, weather conditions, and time of day
The Emergency Response subsection of the ERG has three subsections, they are: Fire, Spill or Leak, and First Aid
At the Awareness-level responders when dealing with a fire should: Not attempt to attack fire involving hazardous materials
At the Operational-level responders when dealing with a fire should: With necessary protection and training can accomplish defensive fire attack
At the Technician-level responders when dealing with a fire should: Conduct offensive fire attack
At the Awareness-level responders when controlling a spill or leak should: With proper protection, perform spill control avoiding direct contact with product
At the Technician-level responders when controlling a spill or leak can: Perform leak control
The First Aid subsection of the ERG outlines: Basic first aid for victims of exposure
Awareness-level responders with proper protection can come in direct contact with persons who present a significant risk of: Secondary contamination
Officers should encourage contaminated victims to move to: Isolated area and await medical assistance from properly trained and protected personnel
Untrained and unprotected personnel must not attempt to rescue victims who are: Unconscious because of exposure to hazardous materials
The Public Safety section of the ERG contains information on: notification, protective clothing, and evacuation
The notification subsection of the Public Safety identifies what officers must do immediately when called to a scene such as: Activate agency emergency response plans and ensure help is on the way.
The protective clothing subsection of the Public Safety indicates when and if responders need Specialized chemical protection, protective clothing requires proper training
The evacuation section of the Public Safety identifies what officers next step after the isolation of the immediate area is complete, that is: Evacuate or protect persons downwind or within the radius of the incident
Officers should evacuate if the incident is going to: Last for an extended period or could potentially cause a fire or explosion
To know when awareness-level responders should terminate their involvement in an incident, they should Follow agency policies and procedures
The acronym OSHA stands for: Occupational Safety and Health Administration
The intent of OSHA requirements is to: Learn from mistakes and foster a continuing learning process that ultimately improves safety
During a hazardous materials incident debriefing officers should identify information such as: Identify weakness, document the termination process, identify the need for post-exposure medical evaluations
During the on-scene debriefing officers should advise all responders of all strengths and weaknesses in the critique and after-action analysis phases and also: Materials exposed to, signs and symptoms of overexposure, whom to contact if they notice signs and symptoms of exposure
To prevent hazardous materials incidents from happening again, the employer: Identifies methods to correct weaknesses, implements the plan, and addresses training issues
Is an illegally manufactured, highly addictive stimulant Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine can be used/abused by several ways, they are: Injected, taken orally, or inhaled by smoking or snorting
Methamphetamine is often manufactured in: Small, makeshift laboratories in rural areas and communities surrounding larger cities.
Police departments and sheriff's offices often discover labs when: Serving arrest warrants or investigating other criminal activity
Officers should follow several safety guidelines when they encounter a methamphetamine lab and should be of: Chemical present, equipment and stages involved in manufacturing it
Dangerous chemicals used in making meth can be kept: Kitchens, cooking areas or throughout a residence
It is not unusual for meth labs to be: Mobile and located in the trunk or trailer
Methamphetamine is manufactured by converting Psuedoephedrine or ephedrine
The two common methods used in converting meth are: Red phosphorous, the "Red P" method and the Anhydrous ammonia, the "Nazi" method
If an officer suspects a meth lab is present, the officer should: Avoid inhaling fumes or having any contact with the chemicals, as they can cause explosions or oxygen depletion
Many chemicals used to make meth in addition to being explosive are also: Highly corrosive
Officers should not touch anything or turn anything off or on, because they make be: Booby-trapped
Due to possible contamination from a meth lab officers must not: Place anything in their patrol cars or remove any items from the site
When officers encounter a meth lab or suspected meth lab they should always: Err on the side of caution
When responding to a bomb threat, initial information will guide an officer's actions upon arrival. They should obtain as much info from dispatch as possible such as: Nature of complaint, means of the threat and time received, alleged time of detonation, location of device, and threat recipient
If information is not available from dispatch when dealing with a bomb threat, officers should obtain it by talking wit: Witnesses or the complaint
It is necessary to identify the nature of bomb threat complaint which may be: A threat, suspected explosive device, explosion, or a combination of these
Most bomb threats are made by phone, however others may be made by: Leaving message on an answering machine, leaving a not at the scene, or sending a threat by letter, fax, or email
The time of the bomb threat call will help guide an officer to estimate: Possible time of detonation, level of risk, and deadline by which evacuations or searches must be completed
A common policy or rule when dealing with a bomb threat is to be out of the building at least: 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after alleged time of detonation
The first officer on the scene of a bomb threat may suggest alternative routes for the: Fire department, EMS or bomb squad
To help an officer find an item's location they can get an accurate description of the location from: Street maps, building layouts, or someone familiar with the area
If an officer can tell the bomb squad the exact location of the suspected device, the bomb squad can: Easily find it and predict possible damaged caused by explosion
An officer, in relation to the suspect device, must also be able to describe precisely location in relation to building layout or area and its relation to: Potential hazards
Potential hazards an officer must be aware of in the area of a suspected device are: Fuel storage tanks, stored chemicals, tanks of pressurized gas, steel rods, rolls or wire, or containers of bolts or nails
To prevent accidental triggering or detonation of a bomb officers must determine whether or not to turn off: Radios and radio wave-transmitting devices
If an officer needs to call someone near a bomb threat scene they should never: Use a cell phone or radio, but use a "landline"
Civilians near a bomb threat scene should never use: Cell or cordless phones, two-way radios, or any electrical or electronic equipment in close proximity
Officers should avoid coming close to a device if its location is known and should chose a route that leads: To a stopping point a safe distance away from the danger
When trying to decide where to park, officers should follow the rule evacuations which is referred to as the "300 foot with cover" rule
The first officers on the scene often will have to move in closer to Confer with the representatives of the building
Once parked, officers should maintain a safe location and distance from the threat and adjust distance and location if: New information indicates the initial stopping point is too close
When deciding where to park, tactically and safely, responding to a explosion threat officers should Look for natural or man-made structures to provide protective cover
Officers should use a tactical approach and arrival to the site of a bomb and even if they are not the first responder should always check their position for and do the following: Secondary devices or suspicious packages, note prominent features and approximate safe distances so specific directions may be given, and recommend potential command sites to dispatch
Some signs an officer might notice of hazardous materials at the scene of a suspected bomb site are: Unusual smell or irritation to skin, eyes, or breathing passages.
If an officer observes any signs or symptoms of hazardous materials the officer should move: Upwind and uphill from the hazard and seek medical attention
If the officer approaches the scene and sees signs of an explosion there are new safety issues and they can include: Broken gas lines, weakened building structures, debris and fires
If an explosion has occurred the officer should immediately alert EMS and the FD and request additional backup and should also: Increase the perimeter distance and secure the possible crime scene
Sometimes the recipient of the threat is most important witness and should be located and interviewed as soon as possible, and additionally: Not allowed to leave the scene for further questioning by the bomb squad and investigators
The officer interviewing people at the scene should request dispatch to have these following people meet them at a agreed-upon place, they are: Complainant, owner/representative of the building or threatened area, or another knowledgeable person
Bomb threats can occur at other locations that the target or dispatch, they are: Media station or 911
Sources of information about credibility of a bomb threat on a building and the threat area may come in many different ways, they are: Officer's assessment of situation, credibility of threat, level of risk, advisability of an evacuation, location's evacuation plan, means of communication within evacuation location, availability of building plans
This will be the major issue in determining whether to search or evacuate when dealing with a bomb threat Credibility
Official capacity in giving permission to search or evacuate a building or area must giving by: Owner/representative
If agency policy allows officers to assist in searching for explosive devices, officers should inform owner will provide assistance only with persons knowledgeable about the building's: Layout, contents, and occupants
An officer should advise the owner that it is his or her decision to evacuate unless A device is found. Officer will then issue a mandatory evacuation
Critical information when searching and evacuating the building and securing assess includes: Entrances, exits, and any existing evacuation plans
If the first contacts cannot provide information about the building it is necessary to obtain the names and locations of individuals who can such as: Custodian, security officer or maintenance supervisor
Officers should find out who controls access to the building and ask questions about possible bomb threat suspects who may include: Ex-employees, disgruntled employees, angry customers, employees who may be experiencing disputes with significant others, or expelled or suspended students
Bomb threats may come in a physical form, examples are: Letter or note, item is considered as evidence
Bomb threats may come in a verbal form, some agencies have procedures and arrangements for tracing phone calls with the: Local telephone company or cell phone companies
All threats and bomb situations must be treated as: Real until proven otherwise
An officer must estimate the credibility of the threat when deciding whether to recommend: Search or evacuation, participate in a search, notify bomb squad/fire department/EMS, or move public farther from threat
For officers and others involved physical evidence may substantiate a threat's: Credibility and risk level
Examples of physical evidence dealing with a threat may include: Found device, suspicious item, threatening note or letter, suspicious car, suspicious circumstances (door or window usually locked found unlocked, vice versa), signs of illegal entry, or items moved from their normal position
Early in the investigation if it is discovered that video security surveillance system exists tapes will need to be viewed eventually and should be: Removed and preserved as potential evidence to prevent being damaged or destroyed by an explosion
In a bomb threat situation the advisability of a search depends on different factors, including: Obtaining permission to search, level of risk for those conducting the search, possibility of threats in addition to a bomb, agency policy on its officers searching for explosives
Information received in the threat or warning might indicate the risk is too high and that the device is: Cleverly booby-trapped, triggered remotely by bomber observing
If bomb is supposed to detonate soon the search should be: Postponed
If an explosion occurs or occurred before officer arrival the responsibility to search for explosives no longer exist and officer should focus on Safety of others
The most obvious area(s) to search are those mentioned in the threat if any then focus on the next publicly areas such as: Entrance-ways and foyers, lobbies, waiting areas, restrooms, cleaning and storage closets, and elevator shafts (including top of elevator)
If search of public areas fail a determination whether to search the rest of the building or area must be made and should go from: Bottom to top, with the basement areas, including utility rooms and areas with heating, cooling, electrical power, and telephone equipment
The exterior search for a secondary device should be done first must include a search of the exterior perimeter of the: Building,nearby surroundings areas, edge of the street, evacuation gathering point, emergency responders staging area or command post
Officers are not expected to know and be able to identify all varieties of: Bombs, explosives, and military ordnances
Officers, from a safe distance, can assist bomb technicians by obtaining any information possible about potential explosive device such as: Color, shape, size, anything protruding from, partially covered, inside container and any names, labels, placards, chemical symbols or signs indicating the type of explosive
Officers or employees should avoid the following actions if a potential explosive device or suspicious item is found is: Never attempt to open or even examine a suspected device or package, allowed to handle suspicious items
Are a special class of suspicious items: Mail bombs
Mail bombs could be delivered by the following: United States Postal Service, delivery service (FedEx), by hand
Some possible recognition points of mail bombs are envelopes or packages that are: Rigid, excessive postage, unevenly packed, excessive securing material
Possible recognition points of mail bombs are envelopes or packages relating to addressing and labeling are: Bearing incorrect titles, titles but no names, misspellings of common words, handwritten or poorly typed addresses, or restrictive markings ("confidential" or "personal")
Possible recognition points of mail bombs are envelopes or packages relating to visual appearance of package are: Bear oily stains, discoloration, strange odors and protruding wires
If officers or individuals at the location become suspicious of a mailed item, the item should: Not be handled and isolated by evacuating the area
A motor vehicle used as a bomb is referred to as: Vehicle bomb
Vehicle bombs can be very powerful and dangerous causing mass destruction to: The structure and humans
Signs a vehicle bomb may be present are: Threat mentions it, suspiciously close to the building/restricted area(improper decal/sticker), unfamiliar to building occupants, heavy load(riding low on its rear axle), strange smell, leaks powder or liquid, bomb dog alerts, driver/passenger exits fast
Evacuation distance from a vehicle bomb should be much greater than from a building because the bomb is potentially very large and pieces of the vehicle act as shrapnel, distance depends on: Agency policy and the size of the vehicle
When officers approach the scene they should look for suspicious items or activity indicating the presence of explosive device, some common hiding locations for devices are: Vehicles parked unusually close to the building, abandoned luggage, gym bags, backpacks, buggies, strollers, or suspicious packages
Building searches must be done systematically and with extreme caution, time can range from? depending on? Completed quickly or take several hours, depending on building's size and proficiency of the search teams
When a room or area has been completely searched during a building search members should: Place tape across the doorway of a room
Bombs can explode when a person comes near them, this can occur by several means like: Thin or clear tripwire, pressure switches (under rug, doormat, in soil outdoors), sensors detecting motion or sound
When searching a room for a bomb persons searching before entering doorway should: Lean through the door and look in all directions, above the door frame, and on both sides
If an explosive device is found in a room or area before vacating officers should: Take a brief look at device, note identifying numbers or markings, leave immediately and carefully
Fellow officers in the immediate area must be advised of the found device and location, additionally this group of people should also be told within earshot to safely and calmly depart Civilians
Are intended to kill or injure first responders after finding a device or after an explosion of the first bomb Secondary devices or secondary bombs
In some bombing situations the bomber can plant the first device as a decoy in very obvious and visible location with the intent of: Convincing the officer the threat has been bound and the danger is over
The best safeguards against the effects of an explosion are: Distance and barriers
To protect the public from an unknown explosive device a general safe distance for the initial perimeter is: 300 feet with protective cover
If good protective cover is unavailable when dealing with an explosive device or if type or amount of explosive is known, officers should: Substantially increase the evacuation distance
Before an officer arrives to the scene of a suspected bomb site he or she should determine the identity of the: Owner, manager, person in charge, or representative of the owner with some authority
If the property is private the decision to evacuate the building must be made by: Owner or manager. A building is typically evacuated when a hazard is discovered
There are two types of evacuations when dealing with a bomb incident, they are: Partial evacuation and total evacuation
Could be used in a location that has multiple buildings or facilities in which a specific building has been identified in the threat: Partial evacuation
Should be used during incidents which have a moderate to high credibility and risk and no specific area at the location was identified in the threat Total evacuation
Commonly found paraphernalia used in the manufacture of meth are: Quart(mason) jars, beakers, two-liter bottles, and small gas cans with hose
Commonly found paraphernalia used the process of making meth are: Heating source, blenders, coffee filters, and blister packs from nasal decongestant products
MS-13 are known for their progressive increase in violent activities and careless disread for the law (threats and attacks against law enforcement officials are common) making them: The most feared gang in the U.S.
When a device or suspicious package is found or an explosion occurs the location becomes a: Crime scene
How extensively an officer participates during a bomb threat depends on: Agency policy and procedures, officer assistance is wanted or required, owner/representative has conferred with Emergency Action Plan (EAP)
Acroyomn EAP stands for Emergency Action Plan
The increase in terrorist activity has generated a need to prepare law enforcement officers to handle incidents involving: Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
Florida State Statues (in 790.166) define weapons of mass destruction as the: Manufacture, possession, sale, delivery, display, use, or attempted or threatened use of a WMD or hoax WMD prohibited
Define following: device/object designed or intended to cause death/serious bodily harm to any human/animal, or severe emotional or mental harm to any human through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors Weapons of mass destruction as per Florida State Statues (in 790.166)
Define the following: Any device or object involving a biological agent Weapons of mass destruction as per Florida State Statues (in 790.166)
Define the following: Any device or object that is designed or intended to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human or animal life Weapons of mass destruction as per Florida State Statues (in 790.166)
Define the following: Any biological agent, toxin, vector, or delivery system Weapons of mass destruction as per Florida State Statues (in 790.166)
Unlawfully manufacture, posses, sell, delivery, send, mail, display, use, threaten to use, attempt to use, conspire to use, or make readily accessible to others a WMD is what level of offense First-degree felony (F.S. 790.166)
Unlawfully manufacture, posses, sell, delivery, send, mail, display, use, threaten to use, attempt to use, conspire to use, or make readily accessible to others a "hoax WMD" is what level of offense Second-degree felony (F.S. 790.163)
A person who makes a false report concerning the placing or planting of a WMD is guilty of what level of offense: Second-degree felony (F.S. 790.163)
A WMD often focuses on heavily frequented location or locations that greatly impact the population, such as: Airports, subways, schools, churches, government buildings, or large public gatherings (fairs, festivals or sporting events)
CBRNE stands for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, Explosives
Officers must always be familiar with their patrol area and note any signs which might indicate a possible WMD threat, such as: Strange chemical canisters or drums left abandoned in a empty field or ditch
Terrorist often conduct pre-operational surveillance before executing an attack, some examples are: Videotaping a potential target location, sketching floor plans, taking still photographs or structural features, and taking notes on security force activity
WMD include weapons that could: Release biological contamination, toxic chemical agents, incendiary fires, may also include conventional explosives
Each WMD is unique because of the: Scope of death and destruction, insidious nature of weapon, personal danger to first responders
Contain living organisms and are unpredictable and uncontrollable when released: Biological weapons
Biological agents can be dispersed through food and water supplies by using: Aerosols, liquid droplets, solid dispersion (powder), and by using common creatures (fleas, ticks, other insects)
Aside from written or verbal threats other possible indicators of a biological attack include: Unusual numbers of sick or dying people/animals, high prevalence of respiratory involvement diseases that cause non-pulmonary syndrome, damage and ruin to crops and agricultural products, abnormal swarms of insects
Unscheduled or unusual distribution of sprayed material, casualty distribution aligned with wind direction, abandoned spray or dispersion devies, or appearance of containers from laboratory/biological supply houses or biohazard cultures can be signs of: Biological attack
A person can come into contact with biological agents used as potential weapons by: Absorbed through skin, inhalation, and through the digestive system
Signs and symptoms of a Anthrax attack usually occur seven days after exposure to the agent examples are: Respiration problems, vomiting and fever
Is a contagious infectious disease that can be transmitted by prolonged face-to-face contact with an infected person, direct contact with infected bodily fluids and direct contact with infected objects such as clothes Smallpox
After an incubation period of 7-17 days signs and symptoms of smallpox are: Pox-like rash, raised bumps, fever, muscle rigidity, shivering, malaise, headaches, and vomiting
Is a highly toxic poison found in seeds of the castor bean plant Ricin
Exposure to Ricin can occur by Ingestion and inhalation
When exposure to ricin is from ingested symptoms can begin with a few hours and include: Abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea
After several days exposure to ricin a person suffers experience such as: Severe dehydration, decreased urination, and decreased blood pressure
When exposure to ricin is from inhalation symptoms begin 18-24 hours after exposure and include: Fever, chest tightness, cough, nausea, and joint pain
Severe respiratory distress and death can occur from ricin inhalation within how many hours: 36-72
Is the single most poisonous substance known: Botulinum toxin
All forms of botulism result from the absorption of the toxin through the: Digestive system, a wound, or the lungs
The signs and symptoms of a botulism attack or exposure occur within 12-80 hours and include: Difficulty seeing, speaking, and/or swallowing, double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, dry mouth, and muscle weakness
Nuclear detonation energy is released through: Light, thermal energy, shock waves, blasts or wind, direct radiation, and fallout
Potential injuries from a nuclear detonation include: Light damage to eyes, burns to the skin, blast (pressure) injuries, being hit by propelled objects, radiation from the bomb ignition, falling radioactive particles
A device can be radioactive component but does not necessarily make the device radioactive, to be referred to as radiological (having a radioactive characteristic) depends on: Type, amount, or encasement of the component
Environmental indicators of a nuclear attack include: Damage to a facility or vehicle, the use of bombs, missiles, or other damaging objects (airplane and the release of radioactive materials)
Are traditional bombs with radioactive materials loaded into the casing Dirty bombs
Dirty bombs are not considered nuclear weapons because they do not contain: The same explosive power, their radiation is preloaded whereas nuclear weapons create radioactivity upon detonation
There are several indicators of presence of a dirty bomb device or explosion such as: Require a casing and detonation mechanism (pieces may be present at the scene) and witnesses may state blew just blew apart
Radiation can not be detected by the senses but can be detected by: Bomb squads and HAZMAT teams, health officials which have equipment to detect the amount of radiation in the area
Incendiary devices consist of a minimum of three components, they are: Ignition source, combustible filler material, housing/container
Common materials used as incendiary devices are: Roadway flares, gasoline/motor oil in Molotov Cocktails, and light bulbs
Officers should respond to potential incendiary events the same way they would respond to bomb situations and never: Touch, move or disturb an incendiary device
Relatively cheap, easy to produce, greatest overall threat from WMD category and can kill many people because a small amount of agent can be spread over a wide area Chemical weapon
Physical destruction of property from a chemical weapon is minimal but environmental contamination can be Serious and prolonged and can include destroying of food crops, contamination of water sources, and the death and extinction of animals
Officers should anticipate a threatening environment when dealing with chemical weapons that might release gases or aerosols because of the delay of the effects and the following signs and symptoms include: Numerous ill persons suffering breathing problems, blurry vision, and unidentifiable muscle contractions
In addition to the physiologic effects of a potential WMD situations such as: Entering area that does not appear to WMD-related, location where physical structures are unstable or secondary device, situation in which people panic and look officers for immediate relief
An officer's first responsibility in a CBRNE situation is to: Protect him- or herself, others and property
Emergency responders can decide whether to evacuate victims or protect them on-site based on: Civilian mobility and the degree to which victims have been exposed to materials. Are they ambulatory? Are the contaminated?
Traditional law enforcement response and rescue approach will not work for WMD incidents because: Rushing into a chemical, biological, or explosive scene could result in the first responder's death or additional victims
In an isolated area with no persons nearby communication and notification can be done before: Securing the scene
Officers should approach the WMD incident cautiously from: Upwind, uphill, and upstream position. Until he or she can safely identify and/or assess the CBRNE situation
Officers should approach the WMD incident and stop a minimum of: 300 feet, however 500 to 1000 feet might be needed.
Should be consulted for recommended shielding distances from blast zones and safe distances from chemical releases: The ERG
Is an important step in responding to a WMD incident Isolation
A secure position set up for contaminated and uncontaminated persons Victim Collection Points
Victim Collection Points allow EMT's to easily locate those who need medical treatment and can be designated once: A preliminary perimeter has been established
Tactical considerations officers need to remember when securing the scene is to isolate exposed victims and contaminated include: Monitoring entry to scene, assuring public protection (evacuating or protecting an area), confining & containing all contaminated & exposed victims, scene safe or able to be safe for operations, protecting scene/evidence, security & control of perimeter
Securing the scene should focus more on: Preventing entry rather than preventing the exit of victims
Officer should avoid physical contact with possibly contaminated person and: Direct those persons to a safe location where decontamination can occur
The use of force to detain a contaminated person might be justified if officials suspect: The person is involved in the attack
If an officer is the first on the scene of a CBRNE incident he or she should: Relay information to responding units
The officer may need to tell dispatch about any unknown substances, number of exposed victims and if known: What type of vehicle, container or device is involved
The officer could be responsible for settign up a temporary Incident Command Center and directing: EMS to the contaminated and non-contaminated victims
Officers should brief his or her supervisor on the situation and relinquish control to the supervisor or the : Incident Command director
BNICE stands for Biological, Nuclear/Radiological, Incendiary, Chemical, and Explosive Agents
An officer can use the following Florida Statues: Breach of the Peace; Disorderly Conduct, Unlawful Assemblies, Affrays and Riots, Disorderly Conduct to help the officer: Control a crowd
The Public Safety section of the ERG contains information on: Notification, Protective clothing, Evacuation
In bomb threat situations officers should always: Seek information beyond what is volunteered by complainants and witnesses
Officers can protect themselves against booby traps by watching for: Trip wires, lumps or bulges in carpet and rugs, and step over floor mats
Created by: goarmy
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