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Chapter 9 Genetics

Terms and Concepts for Chapter 9

Mendel father of genetics
cross-fertilize a plant from another place fertilizes it
self-fertilize a plant fertilizes itself
Hybrid fertilization in which the sex cells are produced by two different individuals or sometimes by individuals of different kinds
P generation the parents (the 1st generation)
F1 Generation offspring or kids of the P generation (2nd generation)
F2 Generation kids of the kids of P Generation ( the 3rd generation)
Monohybrid cross crossbreeding experiment that follows the inheritance of a single characteristic across one or more generations
Dihybrid cross a cross between the F1 offspring of two individuals that differ in two traits of particular interest
Dominant Allele a gene that is expressed in an organism's phenotype masks a recessive gene (always expressed)
Recessive allele it's hidden (a gene whose phenotype expression is masked by a dominant gene
Homozygous two of the same allele that code for the same trait
Heterozygous one of each allele that code for the same trait
Carriers they have the trait but don't show it
Recessive Disorders can be hidden. ex: Cystic fibrosis, albinism, PKU (phenylketonuria), Sickle cell disease. tay-sachs disease
Dominant Disorders Dwarfism (achondroplasia), huntingston's disease, alheimers, hypercholesterlemia
Genotype vs.Phenotype 1) order of letter 2)how they are expressed
Complete 1) Inheritance characterized by an allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote and that masks the phenotypic expression of the recessive allele
Incomplete Dominance neither can mask the other( the appearance in a heterozygote of a trait that is intermediate between either of the trait's homozygous phenotypes
Codominance both get expressed( a condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other.
Pleiotropy one bad gene creates a multitude of effects
polygenic inheritance many genes affect one trait
Monoecious plant species that are both male and female
Hermaphroditic animal species that are both male and female
sex-linked disorders red-green color blindness, hemophilia, duchenne muscular dystrophy
Principle of segregation chromosome from mom and chromosome from dad separate during meiosis
Test cross a cross between an individual exhibiting the dominant phenotype of a trait and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that trait in order to determine the genotype of the dominant individual
Created by: morgannoble