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1896 - 1914

APUSH Review #6

TermDescriptionSignificance
Election of 1896 William McKinley was the Republican- North, Williams Bryan was the Democrat- West and the South. Issues were protective tariffs, and coinage of silver William McKinley won the election.
William Jennings Bryan Ran for president in the election of 1896. Gave the "Cross of Gold" speech.
William McKinley Republican congressman from Ohio Defeated William Jennings Bryan in election of 1896.
"Cross of Gold" speech Speech given by Bryan on June 18, 1896 at Democratic National Convention. It was his part of a convention-wide debate over monetary policy. He said the people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold."
Imperialism Policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of maintenance of and/or acquisition. Was an issue of the election of 1900. Nations can extend their authority by territorial acquisition, or by establishing economic, and political hegemony over other nations.
Captain Mahan Brilliant naval historian and noted theorist on the importance of sea power to national defense. Wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was also a proponent of building a large navy.
Samoa Country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific. Was once called Western Samoa
Hawaii State of the U.S. in the central Pacific Ocean made up of the Hawaiian Islands. Became U.S. territory in 1900, and was admitted as the 50th state in 1959.
Queen Liliuokalani The last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian Islands In 1898, Hawaii was annexed to the U.S. and Queen Liliuokalani was forced to give up her throne.
McKinley Tariff Act was designed to protect American industries form foreign competition. Tariff bill of 1890 was sponsored by Republican Senator William McKinley of Ohio.
Spanish-American War War between the Spanish and the Americans April 25, 1898 the U.S. declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine, in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898.
Cuba An island country in the Caribbean Sea South of Florida. Settled originally by Arawak Indians; it was discovered by Columbus in 1492, and was colonized by Spain starting in 1511. Spain relinquished its control of Cuba in 1898 as a result of the Spanish-American War, and following a three-year occupation by U.S. forces, the island became self- governing in 1902. Fidel Castro ousted Batista in 1959, to dominate Cuba’s government
Yellow Journalism Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, perceived the conflict with Spain as their chance to increase circulation of their newspapers.
William Randolph Hearst Born on April 29, 1863 in San Francisco, California He was inspired by the journalism of Joseph Pulitzer, and turned the newspaper into a combo of reformist investigative reporting, and lurid sensationalism. He developed a reputation for employing the best journalists available.
Maine U.S. battleship Explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana crippled the warship, and the U.S. blamed Spain.
Manila Bay Mariveles, Batan is an anchorage just inside the northern entrance and Sangley Point Harbor which serves the port of Manila in the Philippines.
Rough Riders Theodore Roosevelt formed this group to fight in the Spanish-American War in Cuba. Charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
Theodore Roosevelt Became the youngest President in the Nation’s history, when he was not quite 43. In charge of the navy when the crisis with the Maine occurred. He’d rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
San Juan Hill Elevation in the eastern parts of Cuba close to Santiago de Cuba. Cuban and American forces captured it on July 1, 1898 during the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt and his Rough Riders became famous for a charge up the hill during the battle. Roosevelt in, 1898 formed the Rough Riders to fight in the Spanish-American War in Cuba. They charged up the San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
Treaty of Paris 1898 Treaty ending the Spanish-American War, which was approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898. U.S. gained control of Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam and Cuba
American Anti-Imperialist League A league that contained anti-imperialist groups League was never strong due to differences on domestic issues.
Philippines Republic on the Philippine Islands; achieved independence from the U.S. in 1946. U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris
Puerto Rico Smallest and Easternmost of the Greater Antilles. Bound by the Atlantic Ocean on the North, and the Caribbean Sea on the South. U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris
Open Door Policies Communication that was dispatched to all the great powers. The phrase Open Door caught the public and gained wide acceptance John Hay, in the summer of 1899 sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition
Boxer Rebellion Rebellion by a Secret Chinese Society known as the Boxers Their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislation’s in Beijing.
Election of 1900 William McKinley was the republican candidate, and William Bryan was the democratic candidate. William McKinley defeated William Bryan, and the issues were imperialism.
"Big Stick" diplomacy Roosevelt came up with the plan "walk softly and carry a big stick." He said in international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policeman.
Panama Canal Isthmus of Panama had been apart of Columbia, and the U.S. tried to negotiate with Panama to build a canal Built to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster.
Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt devised a devious policy of "preventive intervention." U.S. would act as a international policeman. This was in addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
Russo-Japanese War War between the Japanese and Russians Japan attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia’s refusal to withdraw its troops from Manchuria after the Boxer Rebellion. The war was fought mainly in Korea. Japan was victorious in the War, and the U.S. mediated the end of the war.
Progressive Era a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s, although some experts use the narrower time frame of 1900 to 1917 sought change in all policies at all levels of society, economy and government
Muckrackers Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessman, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906. He compared them to the figure in Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, who was so intent on ranking manure that he couldn’t see the celestial crown dangling overhead.
Henry Demarest Lloyd A journalist Lloyd published a series of articles exposing corruption in business and politics.
Jacob Riis Photo-Journalist Wrote and lectured on the problems of the poor.
Ida M. Tarbell An author during the 1900's Wrote History of the Standard Oil Company, which exposed the monopolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company.
Referendum Submission of a proposed public measure or actual statute to a direct popular vote. The people had a voice, and were able to have an elected official removed form office.
Initiative Right and procedure by which citizens can propose a law by petition and ensure its submission to the electorate This allowed for citizens to pass laws via-petition.
Taylorism The Principles of Scientific Management, was written by Frederick Taylor, in 1911, and the principles soon became known as Taylorism. Began to change how organizations functioned. Prior to this, organizations were usually setup in homes or in formal businesses where the work spaces were open. No barriers to communication were present, and ideas could flow freely among employees
Robert M. La Follete Great debater and political leader He believed in libertarian reforms, and was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Fire that broke out in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, in New York in 1911, and killed 146 people. Dramatized the poor working conditions, and led to federal regulations to protect the workers
Prohibition Eighteenth amendment outlawed the manufacture, and sale of intoxicating liquors. Penalties were set for violations of the prohibition act, and Al Capone, was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime in the era
Trusts Corporations, or firms, that combine to reduce competition, and control prices. Gave title to property, and established monopolies
Swift and Company V. United States Appeal from the circuit court from the U.S. to the legislative of Louisiana. This “meat trust” became such a monopoly that the U.S. Supreme Court had to disband it in 1905
1902 Coal Strike Coal strike occurring in 1902, due to wages Roosevelt invited representatives of the United Mine Workers and coal operators to the White House on October 3, 1902 becoming the first president to personally intervene in a labor dispute.
Election of 1904 Alton B. Parker versus Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt defeated Parker, and became the president
Hepburn Act Law that ended up strengthening the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission by increasing its membership from five to seven and allowing it to determine reasonable rates upon the complaint of a shipper Prohibited free railroad passes and forbade railroads to haul commodities they had produced themselves
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle Book written about the horrors of food production in 1906 Report on the dirty conditions in the Chicago meat-packing industry. The book won Sinclair fame and fortune, and led to the implementation of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906.
Conservation Preservation or restoration from loss, damage or neglect A Conservation Conference, was formed, and was an environmental conference to study the nation’s natural resources, and how to conserve them.
Dollar Diplomacy An attempt to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American Commercial interests. Failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution in places like China, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua and Mexico.
Election of 1908 William Howard Taft versus William Jennings Bryan Taft defeated Bryan because of his support of Roosevelt
William Howard Taft President of the U.S. from 1908-1912 Only man to serve as president, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy A dispute during the Taft Administration in 1909 between Secretary of the Interior Richard A. Ballinger and the head of the Forestry Service in the Department of Agriculture, Gifford Pinchot Ballinger was exonerated
Square Deal President Roosevelt’s domestic program primarily aimed at helping middle class citizens Policies of the Square Deal involved attacking the plutocracy and trusts while at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of organized labor.
Seventeenth Amendment Ratification of this amendment, was the outcome of increasing popular dissatisfaction with the operation of the originally established method of electing Senators Gave the power to elect Senators to the people, who had been previously appointed by the legislatures of their states
Woodrow Wilson President from 1912-1920 Repealed the Treaty of Versailles
Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson versus Theodore Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson defeated Roosevelt for the presidency
New Freedom Domestic progressive policies Included reduction of the tariff on imported goods, reform of the inept national banking system, and strengthening of the Sherman Act to combat trusts
Bull Moose Party Formally Progressive Party, and was Roosevelt’s party in the 1912 election U.S. dissident political faction that nominated former president Theodore Roosevelt for the presidency in 1912. Group became the Progressive Party, after William Howard Taft’s Progressive League was organized.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff Tariff of 1913 Vastly increased the free list, adding woolens, steel, farm machinery, iron, and many raw materials and foodstuffs.
Federal Reserve Act Provided for the establishment of Federal reserve banks, to furrish an elastic currency , to afford means of rediscounting commercial paper, to establish a more effective supervision of banking in the U.S., and for other purposes Created 12 Federal Reserve Banks that would act as central banks for all national banks and other member state institutions
Clayton Antitrust Act In 1914, it was passed by the U.S. Congress as an amendment to clarify and supplement the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890In 1914, it was passed by the U.S. Congress as an amendment to clarify and supplement the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 Act prohibited exclusive sales contracts, local price cutting to freeze out competitors, rebates, and interlocking directorates in corporations capitalized at $1 million or more in the same field of business, and intercorporate stock holdings
Mexico Country South of the United States, in Central America Site of conflict in the years just before WWI
ABC Powers Early 20th Century term for Argentina, Brazil and Chile Once the Tampico Incident involving the arrest of American sailors in Mexico occurred in 1914, war threatened. The issue was settled peacefully through the intervention of the ABC Powers at a conference that was held in Niagra Falls, Canada.
Pancho Villa Mexican who tried to run for president of Mexico in 1915, the government of the U.S. didn’t support him however. Villa and his "pistoleros" launched raids along the U.S.-Mexico boundary to frighten the Americas living in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona border towns, President Wilson ordered the War Department to begin deploying troops to Texas and New Mexico.
Created by: shellenberger