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C.P.H.S. S. C. cases

AP Govt. CPHS Supreme Court cases set #2

Barron v. Baltimore (1833) Decision that limited the application of the Bill of Rights to the actions of Congress alone and not to the individual states (overturned via selective incorporation)
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000) The Court ruled that the Boy Scouts could exclude gays from serving as scoutmasters because a private group has the right to set its own moral code.
Bush v. Gore (2000) Controversial 2000 election case that made the final decision on the Florida recounts, and thus, the result of the 2000 election. The Rehnquist Court broke from tradition in this case by refusing to defer to the state court's decision.
Engel v. Vitale (1962) The Court ruled that the recitation in public classrooms of a nondenominational prayer was unconstitutional and a violation of the establishment clause.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Granted indigents the right to counsel.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Supreme Court case that established the Constitution's implied right to privacy (implied in the 14th amendment)
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) The Court determined that direct government assistance to religious schools was unconstitutional. In the majority opinion, the Court created what has become known as the "Lemon Test" for deciding if a law is in violation of the establishment clause.
Lynch v. Donnelly (1984) In a defeat for the ACLU, the Court held that a city's inclusion of a creche in its annual Christmas desplay in a private park did not violate the establishment clause.
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816) The Court's power of judicial review in regard to state law was clarified in this case.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Incorporated a portion of the Fourth Amendment by establishing that illegally obtained evidence cannot be used at a trial (in state courts)
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Supreme Court case in which the Court first asserted the power of judicial review in finding that a congressional statute extending the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
Miller v. California (1973) Case wherein the S.C. began to formulate rules designed to make it easier for states to regulate obscene materials and to return to communities a greater role in determining what is obscene.
Palko v. Connecticut (1937) Set the Court's rationale for selective incorporation, a judicial doctrine whereby most but not all of the protections found in the Bill of Rights are made applicable to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) A sharply divided Court concluded that the unviersity's rejection of Bakke as a student had been illegal because of the use of strict affirmative action quotas was inappropriate.
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe (2000) The Court ruled that student-led, student-initiated prayer at high school football games violated the establishment clause.
Texas v. Johnson (1989) Case in which the Court overturned the conviction of a Texas man found guilty of setting fire to an American flag.
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) Upheld students' rights to express themselves by wearing black armbands symbolizing protest of the Vietnam War.
U.S. v. Lopez (1995) The Court invalidated a section o fthe Gun Free School Zones Act, ruling that regulating guns did not fall within the scope of the commerce clasue, and therefore the powers of the fed. govt. Only states have the authority to ban guns in school zones
Webster v. Reproductive Health Service (1989) In upholding several restrictive abortion regulations, the Court opened the door for state governments to enact new restrictions on abortion.
Weeks v. U.S. (1914) Case wherein the S.C. adopted the exclusionary rule, which bars the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (2002) The Court concluded that governments can give money to parents to allow them to send their children to private or religious schools.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) An unsuccessful attempt to challenge Pennsylvania's restrictive abortion regulations.
New York Times Co. v. U.S. (1971) a.k.a. the "Pentagon Papers" case; the S.C. ruled that any attempt by the government to prevent expression carried "a heavy presumption" against its constitutionality.
Roper v. Simmons (2005) The S.C. ruled that capital punishment for minors violated the Eighth Amendment protection against cruel and unusual punishment.
Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) The S.C. held that advocacy of illegal action is protected by the First Amendment unless imminent lawless action is intended and likely to occur.
Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition (2002) The Court ruled that the Child Online Protection Act of 1998 was unconstitutional because it was too vague in its reliance on "community standards" to define what is harmful to minors.
Gratz. v. Bollinger (2003) The Court struck down the U. of Michigan's undergraduate point system, which gave minority applicants twenty automatic points simply because they were minorities.
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003) The Court voted to uphold the constitutionality of the U. of Michigan's law school policy, which gave preference to minority students.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg School District (1971) The Court ruled that all vestiges of de jure segregation must be eliminated at once.
Created by: cbolthouse