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1860 - 1895

APUSH Review #5

TermDescriptionSignificance
Election of 1860 A realigning election between Lincoln, Davis, Bell, and Breckenridge The United States had been divided through most of the 1850’s on the issue of slavery.
Crittenden Compromise Series of compromises in 1860-61 intended to forestall the American Civil War. Senator John J. Crittenden proposed constitutional amendments that would reenact provisions of the Missouri Compromise.
Abraham Lincoln 16th president of the U.S. To unite the North and influence foreign opinion, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
Fort Sumter On March 5, 1861, the day after his inauguration as president of the United States, Abraham Lincoln received a message from the commander of the U.S. troops holding Fort Sumter. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Confederacy 11 Southern States that seceded from the Union in 1860-61 until its defeat in the American Civil War in 1865. The surrender at Appomattox Court House by General Robert E. Lee in 1865 precipitated its dissolution.
Union The Union was a name used by many to refer to the Northern states during the American Civil War. It was used to refer to the soldiers and residents of the northern U.S. including the Midwest, Mid-Atlantic, and New England states.
Robert E. Lee U.S. and Confederate military leader. He became commander of Virginia’s forces in the American Civil War and adviser to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy.
Ulysses S. Grant U.S. General and 18th president of the U.S. He served in the Mexican War under Zachary Taylor and was Union general during the Civil War.
Bull Run Two engagements of the American Civil War fought at a stream near Manassas. The first battle fought between Union and Confederate troops.
William C. Quantrill Pro-Confederate guerrilla fighter during the American Civil War His actions, particularly a bloody raid on Lawrence, Kansas, remain controversial to this day.
Shiloh Second major engagement of the American Civil War. Both sides claimed victory, but the battle was considered a Confederate defeat.
George B. McClellan U.S. Army general for the Union during the Civil War At the Battle of Antietam he failed to destroy Robert E. Lee’s army, and Lincoln removed him from command.
Second Bull Run A battle during the American Civil War. Lee seized the moment to attack the individual armies before they converged to beat an unbeatable force.
Antietam Decisive and bloody battle of the American Civil War. Following victory in the Second Battle of Bull Run, General Robert E. Lee moved his troops into Maryland with an eye to capturing Washington D.C.
Fredericksburg Engagement of the American Civil War fought at Fredericksburg Virginia. Burnside was relieved of his command, and the victory restored Confederate morale lost after the defeat in the Battle of Antietam.
Emancipation Proclamation Document that was issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln that freed the slaves of the Confederacy. The edict had no power in the confederacy but it provided moral inspiration for the North and discouraged European countries from supporting the south.
Thirteenth Amendment Amendment of the Constitution that freed the slaves. Slavery in America was abolished in 1865.
Clara Barton She established an agency to obtain and distribute supplies to wounded soldiers. Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
Jefferson Davis The only president of the confederacy was a decorated war veteran and politician. Alexander Stephens was his vice president.
Chancellorsville Battle in Virginia that resulted in a Confederate victory. Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by friendly fire.
Vicksburg General Ulysses S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg. Besieged by Grant and surrendered after six months; Union victory.
Gettysburg General Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against General George G. Meade’s army of the Potomac. Union victory; Considered one of the turning points of the war.
Chattanooga General Braxton Bragg’s army laid siege to the Union army under General William Rosecrans. Union victory.
Army of the Potomac Main eastern Union army, commanded by a series of commanders. The army of the Potomac was still active on the Peninsula.
Cold Harbor Sheridan’s cavalry seized the vital crossroads of Old Cold Harbor. Confederate victory.
Sherman’s March to the Sea General Grant arranged two campaigns for the year 1864. General Sherman was promoted major general of the United States Army, and he destroyed large areas of the South.
Appomattox Site where Lee surrendered to Grant. Union won the war.
Morrill Tariff The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a major protectionist tariff bill instituted in the United States. The tax is significant for severely altering American commercial policy after a period of relative free trade to several decades of heavy protection.
Freedman’s Bureau Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction Lincoln issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction for those areas of the Confederacy occupied by Union armies. Lincoln’s plan aroused the sharp opposition of the radicals in Congress, who believed it would simply restore to power the old planter aristocracy.
Reconstruction Reconstruction was the effort of rebuilding the South. Congress proposed the Thirteenth Amendment, which sought to prohibit slavery.
Radical Republicans They were committed to the emancipation of slaves and the equal treatment and enfranchisement of blacks. Believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
John Wilkes Booth U.S. actor and assassin of President Abraham Lincoln. shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!")
Andrew Johnson 17th president of the U.S. He served in the House of Representatives and as governor of Tennessee. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote.
‘Black Codes’ Laws enacted in the former Confederate states after the American Civil War to place restrictions on the freedom of former slaves. Many provisions of the black codes were reenacted in the Jim Crow laws and remained in force until the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
Civil Rights Act Comprehensive U.S. law intended to end discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. 1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
Fourteenth Amendment It placed an important federal limitation on the states by forbidding them to deny to any person “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.” 1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
Impeachment To bring charges against a public official. Johnson was impeached, but was saved from being taken out of office by one vote.
Congressional Reconstruction Congress’ passage of the 14th Amendment, 1866-1867 Congress’ efforts to stiffen the terms of Reconstruction through Military Reconstruction Act of 1867. establishes terms that will delay but not prevent return of white rule in the South.
Military Reconstruction Act 1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
Command of the Army Act instructed the President to issue orders only through the General of the Army, then Ulysses S. Grant Congress moved to limit Johnson's powers as President in several ways.
Tenure of Office Act 1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
Sharecroppers Landowners divided their land and gave each worker (either freed African American or poor white) a few acres along with seeds and tools. Croppers who saved a little and brought their own tools could drive a better bargain with landowners.
Carpetbaggers A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes Bought up land from desperate Southerners and manipulated new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
Scalawags White Southerners who joined the Republican Party. Hoped to gain political office with the help of African American votes.
Ku Klux Klan During the period of congressional Reconstruction some white Southerners formed vigilante groups, which whipped, tortured, and murdered former slaves in attempt to restore white supremacy. Destroyed the Reconstruction governments to aid the planter class in controlling African-American laborers, and to prevent African American from exercising their political rights.
Enforcement Acts Congress passed the Enforcement Act in 1870-1871. It gave the president the power to use federal troops in areas when the Klan was active. The Klan’s active decreased but individuals acts of violence against blacks and white republican continued.
Election of 1868 Republican Grant defeated Democratic Seymour. With freed blacks voting in much of the South (with the help of Union soldiers), and with massive popularity in the North as the man who won the Civil War, Grant won an impressive victory
Gould and Fisk Stock manipulators They made money selling gold and were part of a scandal that rocked Grant’s presidency.
Black Friday September 24, 1869 - Financial panic in the United States caused by Fisk and Gould’s efforts to corner the gold market. It showed that Grant acted stupidly and indiscreetly.
edit Mobilier A construction company had skimmed off outrageously large profits from a government railroad contract. This precipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.
Whiskey Ring Internal revenue collectors and other officials accepted bribes from Whiskey distillers who wanted to avoid paying taxes on their product. Evidence of widespread dishonesty mounted and many grew disgusted with the blatant corruption on the Grant administration.
Election of 1872 The candidates consisted of Grant and Greely from the Liberal Republican party ran for president. Grant won the election by a lot Greely died after the election before the electoral college made the defeat official.
Panic of 1873 Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike
Compromise of 1877 A compromise that kept the peace between the Republicans and Democrats. Satisfied many Republican and Democrats in counting the electoral votes.
Samuel J.Tilden Governor of New York, that helped up the graft that had flourished in New York. A man that was one short of the number of electoral votes needed to win.
Election of 1876 A election that took place because of one short number of electoral votes. A joint session of congress met to witness the counting of electoral votes which didn't settle the dispute.
Rutherford B. Hayes A stodgy governor of Ohio. The Southern democrats got something accomplished with Hayes such as, withdrawal of federal troops, appoint a conservative Southern to the Cabinet.
New South The withdrawal of Southern Democrats disillusioned with their party. The president and his fellow Republicans hoped not only to keep the White House but also to recapture majority in Congress.
Redeemers (Bourbons) A planter-merchant elite that dominated southern politics. Came to signify the leaders of the Democratic party, whether they were real reactionaries or, more commonly, champions of an industrial New South.
Jim Crow Laws The privileges taken away from African Americans. To separate white and black people in public and private affairs.
Poll Tax An annual tax that had to be paid to gain access to voting booth. If the tax wasn't paid black and white sharecropper couldn't vote.
Literacy Tests A test that was given required prospective voters be literate. Administered this test to African Americans, would often ask difficult questions, or even foreign language to make them fail so they would be able to vote.
Grandfather Clause A clause stated that even if a man failed the literacy test, and couldn't afford poll taxes he would vote if his father, or grandfather had be eligible to vote before Jan 1, 1867. It gave men a chance to vote if failing the test or couldn't afford poll taxes.
Segregation he physical separation of blacks and whites Occurred mostly in the South, in public facilities, transportation, schools, etc.
Plessy v. Ferguson Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to refuse to ride in the train car reserved for blacks. The NAACP hoped to force a court decision on segregation. The Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.
Booker T. Washington Booker Taliaferro was born a slave on a small farm in Franklin County, Virginia. His father, a white man, was absent from his life. Booker later took a name from his stepfather, Washington Ferguson. urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights
W.E.B. Dubois DuBois became an excellent student and he was hired as the local correspondent for the New York Globe. Through editorials and lectures, he emphasized the need for black people to be politically recognized.
Buffalo Soldiers Members of those units and two all-black infantry regiments, the 24th and 25th, came to be called Buffalo Soldiers. Native Americans named them Buffalo soldiers because their hair resembled buffalo hair
Sand Creek Massacre An infamous incident in the Indian Wars of the United States. The attack was initially reported in the press as a victory against a bravely-fought opponent. Within weeks, however, a controversy was raised about a possible massacre.
George A. Custer An army officer who won notoriety as an Indian fighter in the West. On June 25. He is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes led by Crazy Horse.
Battle of Little Bighorn A battle in Montana near the Little Bighorn River between United States Cavalry and a combined force of Native Americans. The battle was the most famous incident in the Indian Wars and was a remarkable victory for the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne. A U.S. cavalry detachment commanded by Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer was killed to the last man.
Chief Joseph Chief Joseph, a dignified, well-spoken man, was selected to meet and discuss the demand with one-armed Civil War veteran Brigadier General. Led the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
Geronimo Geronimo was chief of the southern Chiricahua tribe of Apache Indians Geronimo fought against ever-increasing numbers of both Mexican and United States troops and became famous for his daring exploits and numerous escapes from capture
Wounded Knee The Seventh Cavalry that slaughtered 30 Native Americans including children. Brought the Indians wars and an entire era a bitter end.
Ghost Dance A millennialist spiritual movement among Native Americans in the United States that began toward the end of 1888 and reached its peak just before the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 The Ghost Dance movements spread rapidly among the 25,000 Sioux on the Dakota reservation.
Sitting Bull : Known as Hunkesni or slow, earned the name Tatanka Yotanka, after a fight with the Crow Indians. He led his people by the strength of his character and purpose.
Dawes Severalty Act Authorized the president of the U.S. to survey Indian tribal land and divide the area into allotments for the individual Indians. 60 million acres of treaty land were opened to settlement by non-Indians.
Great Plains A large expanse of prairie which resides east of the Rocky Mountains. After the near-extinction of the buffalo and the removal of the Native Americans to Indian reservations, the Great Plains were devoted to ranching and were open range, that is, anyone was theoretically free to run cattle.
Range Wars Ranchers and farmers clashed together over land and water rights. Fence cutting became popular for farmers to gain access to pasturelands.
Wild Bill Hickock Hickock was born in Troy Grove, Illinois on May 27, 1837. He was a famous lethal gun welder. He participated in many adventures that made him legendary.
Frederick Jackson TurnerFrederick Jackson Turner American historian. He is best remembered for his “Frontier Thesis", published on July 12, 1893. His later mentioned work won the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1933.
Trusts Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies
Second Industrial Revolution 1871-1914 resulted in mass society. It encouraged important developments within the chemical, electrical, petroleum, and steel industries.
Transcontinental Railroads May 10, 1869 the Union Pacific tracks joined those of the Central Pacific Railroad. Served as an effective means of transportation and is the greatest historical event on transportation.
Pacific Railways Act Acts passed by the U.S. Congress in 1862 and 1864. Gave land grants in the western U.S. to the Union Pacific Railroad and Central Pacific Railroad.
Cornelius Vanderbilt American entrepreneur who built wealth in shipping and is the founder of the renowned Vanderbilt family His descendents built the flock of Vanderbilt houses that characterize America's Gilded Age.
Alexander Graham Bell Scientist, inventor and the founder of the Bell telephone company. He provided invaluable contributions in the area of hydrofoils, the Bel and decibel are named after him.
Thomas Edison Well-known inventor and businessmen. He held a record of 1,093 patents, making him the most prolific inventor of his time : He produced very important inventions. The most significant of these was creation of the electric incandescent lamp.
John D. Rockefeller An American capitalist known for his role in the early petroleum industry. Using his ruthless business tactics, he guided Standard Oil to be the largest oil refining business in the world and gaining an immense fortune.
Andrew Carnegie A Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist. He controlled the most extensive and complete system of iron and steel industries single-handedly.
J.P. Morgan American financier and banker. Received his education at the English High School in Boston and the University of Gottingen He led J.P. Morgan & Co. to become one of the most powerful banks in the world
. Sears, Roebuck and Company Founded in Chicago, Illinois as a catalog merchandiser. Provided an order service that offered lower prices for supplies
Molly Maguires Society of Irish miners who struggled against Brutal working conditions in Pennsylvania coal mines. 20 members of the group were hanged after being convicted in part of the murders of 24 mine managers.
Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Began on July 17 in Martinsburg, West VA, after Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had cut wages for the second time in one year. Required the aid of federal troops, which had last been used in 1830 for strikebreaking, and ended with the deaths and injuries of people within the vicinity of the strike.
"Sand Lot" Incident After the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, at San Francisco's "Sand Lot", a meeting was held to express sympathy for the strikers. Several days afterwards, sporadic anti-Chinese riots led to a mob attack directly on Chinatown.
National Labor Union The first national labor federation in the U.S. It was founded in 1866. It lasted 6 years and boasted 600,000 members. It served as a pathway for other organizations such as The Knights of Labor.
Knights of Labor Founded in 1869 and spread rapidly during the years of depression after 1873. Its preamble and platform endorsed producers' and consumers' cooperatives. In 1884, a successful strike was made against wage cuts in the Union Pacific.
Anarchists They believed that government was an abusive device used by the rich to exploit the working poor. Anarchism was imbedded in leaders, and seven of them died during May 3, 1886, in Chicago's International Harvester plant.
Haymarket Affair Occurred on May 3, 1886, in Chicago’s International Harvester plant. It was a clash between strikers and policemen, and one striker was previously killed. Seven of the anarchist leaders were sentenced to death, despite the claims that they were not responsible for the bomb. Indirectly led to the dissolution of the Knights of Labor.
American Federation of Labor One of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in 1886 by Samuel Gompers. In 1905, the Industrial Workers of the world was created as an alternative to the AFL. In 1920, it reached a peak of 4 million members.
Samuel Gompers Was an American labor union leader and an effective figure in the American labor movement. Served as the AFL president until his death in1924. He worked to spread unionism. He inspired the use of boycotting and strikes instead of political intervention. His insistence against political affiliation led indirectly to the formation of the IWW.
Homestead Steel Strike of 1892 Carnegie was well aware of the use of labor-saving devices and an attempt to smash the union of The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers. On July 6, 1892, the Pinkertons floated up the Monongahela River on barges, opened fire. They were previously hired as union busters; the Homestead Works faced the deaths of nine workers and seven Pinkertons.
Pullman Strike of 1894 It grew out of dispute of the town of Pullman, Illinois, which housed workers of Pullman Palace Car Company in neat homes with neat streets. The Strike began on May 11, 1894 because of the delusive nature of this area. It impacted 27 states and territories greatly. The strike ended on July 13 due to Union retreat, and Eugene V. Debs was sentenced to six months in jail.
Eugene V. Debs An American labor and political leader. He was a five-time socialist Party candidate for the President of the United States. He made an anti-war speech in Canton, Ohio on June 16, 1918. He was arrested under the Espionage Act of 1917 and sentenced to ten years in prison along with the loss of his citizenship. He received 913,664 votes while serving his prison term.
Glover Cleveland Served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. He is the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. At 44, he emerged into politics He was the only democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination between the Civil War and Wilson’s election in 1912.
Socialism Eugene V. Debs formed a coalition that embraced viewpoints from moderate reform to doctrinaire Marxism. It became successful, and by 1912 the Socialist Party seemed well on the way to becoming a permanent part of American politics. : The party reached its largest success in1912. During WWI , it was speckled with disagreements about the war, and it quickly declined. The Great Depression interrupted the decline.
Industrial Workers of the World Dubbed the Wobblies, this served to revive industrial unionism. The foundation was the Western Federation of Miners. It witnessed a deal of internal disputes. Despite its attempts at an already tried idea, it died at the brink of WWI. They were branded as anarchists, bums, and criminals. They left behind a rich folklore of the nomadic working folk and heroic agitators.
Tenements The rise in housing and urbanization of America rise of metropolitan America created an array of social problems.
Ellis Island The joint jurisdiction of NJ and NY is located in New York Harbor at the mouth of the Hudson River. At one point in time, it was the centralized location for immigration acceptance A number of immigrants were ordered to return to their countries due to chronic illnesses, but the majority was allowed to enter America
Chinese Exclusion The Chinese Exclusion Act was an immigration policy implemented in May, 1882. It initially kept Chinese laborers form immigrating to the United States. This recognized as one of the major defining events of Chinese American history that rejected a racial group form entering the U.S. It was repealed in 1943
William “Buffalo Bill” Cody He obtained his nickname for supplying Kansas Pacific Railroad workers with buffalo meat. He worked as a trapper, fifty-niner, pony express rider, Civil War soldier, and performed additional professions. He toured the United States after his frontiersman days. He became interested in the show business. He founded the Buffalo Bill Wild West show, observed the exploitation of western America, and he established a circus.
Vaudeville A variety-theatre commonly referred to as “People’s Theatre”. It flourished in America form the 1880s to the 1920s. It served as a popular form of entertainment for the period listed above. Unfortunately, it began phasing out and has all but disappeared form the stage as of today.
Baseball It is believed to have descended from crick rounders, and town ball. The first list of rules was created in 1845 and the professional league began in 1876 : It became so popular that it became a way of life for some people. Two major leagues began playing a World Series in 1903. Baseball has now spread outside of the United States and it is a common competitive sport in other countries.
Bicycles The earliest forebears of the bicycles were known as velocipedes. The first practical bike was created in 1816 as a machine to collect taxes from tenants. It was further improved in the 1850s and 1860s by Frenchman Ernest Michaus and his pupil, Pierre The frame went through countless evolutions, but the bike has come a long way. It is now categorized in many areas and is a common form of transportation.
Charles Darwin An English naturalist whose theory for the foundation of humankind laid the path for evolution. He proposed natural selection His book, The Origin of Species, portrayed the ideas of natural selection. He made a gallant endeavor on the HMS Beagle to observe the world. His findings in the Galapagos Islands influenced his theory the most.
Herbert Spencer An English philosopher. He became an innovative and thoughtful writer. He proposed a radical classical liberal philosophy in The Man versus the State. He portrayed ideas that were based on evolution.
Social Darwinism Applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection and “survival of the fittest” to human society—the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Reform Darwinism After 1890, social reformers used Darwinism to advocate a stronger role for government and the introduction of various policies They proposed to control human heredity by passing laws that forbid marriage between races or that restrict breeding for various social “misfits” such as criminals or the mentally ill.
Pragmatism A philosophy, which focuses only one the outcomes and effects of processes and situations. The inventive experimental spirit focusing on tangible results.
John Dewey American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms
Samuel Clemens All- time great American author. AKA: Mark Twain Wrote the Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and Huckleberry Finn (1885)
Realism A Literary movement realism came about after the civil war and took the place of Romanticism
Naturalists Portraying life in a scientifically detached manner Influenced by evolutionary theory, and saw human beings as creatures constrained by heredity and environment, rather than as beings with free will
Social Criticism Naturalists who harbor intense average on human misery Wanted basic rights for everybody
Jane Addams Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working claims In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S. to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency, and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Hull House One of Hundreds of settlement houses that operated by the early twentieth century. to help new immigrants
Elizabeth Cady Stanton A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convection on women’s rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments, this declared men and woman to be equal and demanded the right to vote for woman. Co-founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
National American Woman Suffrage Association Promoted a woman’s suffrage amendment to the constitution Try to make both sexes have the same rights
Gilded Age A greatly expanding economy and the emergence of plutocratic influences in government and society. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
City Machines Union took an active role providing campaign funds and votes Blacks had traditionally been Republican but ¾ had shifted to the Democratic Party. Roosevelt still received strong support from ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern farmers
Monopolies A business buying out another business They did not have any competition
Munn v. Illinois Courts against railroad companies Railroad companies were successful and continued doing what they are doing.
Rutherford Hayes The nineteenth president of the United States Was in favor of half breeds (Irish, Chinese)
Stalwarts Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield’s term They supported Cleveland.
Election of 1880 James Garfield, Winfred Hancock, and James Weaver all ran against each other James Garfield won
James Garfield Was the 20th president Was assassinated by Charles Guiteau
Charles Guiteau Was an American Lawyer with a history of mental illness Assassinated President James Garfield on July 2, 1881
Chester Arthur Vice president to James Garfield and became 21st president Dedicated the Washington memorial on 2-21-1885
Pendleton Civil Service Act the first federal regulatory commission Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job.
Election of 1884 Democrat- Cleveland – 219 electoral: 4,911,017 popular. Blaine – 182 electoral: 4,848,334 popular. Butler -175,370 popular. St. John 150,369 popular. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefited from the split in the Republican Party.
James G. Blaine Was the Secretary of State to James Garfield. was rewarded by Grover Cleveland for his support
Mugwumps Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for “chief” and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans
Grover Cleveland 22nd & 24th president only president to serve two non-consecutive terms
Interstate Commerce Commission A five-member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states. designed to address issues of the railroads.
Election of 1888 Republican- Harrison- 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.
Benjamin Harrison 23rd president only president to have a grandson as another president
Sherman Antitrust Act A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies It prohibits contracts, combinations, and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Grange Played important acts by demonstrating farmers were capable of organizing. devoted to education events and social gatherings
Farmers’ Alliance Created by the falling prices, and climbing interests Proved to be incapable of confronting the farm over product issues
Charles W. Macune President of the farmers’ alliance in 1887. Proposed to exert pressure on congress to assist southern farmers
Populist Party named the People’s Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. wrote a platform for the 1892 election in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers.
Depression of 1893 profits dwindled; businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Led to the Pullman Strike.
Silverites Ones who wanted silver during the election of 1896 wanted silver to keep gold over 100 billion
Goldbugs Ones who wanted gold instead of switching to silver wanted gold on their dollar bills instead of green
Created by: shellenberger