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Gov Court Cases
Court Cases About Civil Right/ Civil Liberties
|New York Times vs. Sullivan
|For public officials, must prove that harm was meant with actual malice, reckless disreguard for the truth. (Libel of Politician)
|Griswold vs. Connecticut
|Righ to privacy (To family between a husband and a wife)
|Gregg vs. Georgia
|Death penalty legal-not cruel and unusual
|Civil Rights Act of 1964
|Racial discrimination in hotels, motels, restauraunts is illigal. Also, no job discrimination.
|Roe vs. Wade
|Banning abortion is unconstitutional
|Voting Rights Act of 1965
|Ended literacy test, Register African American voters
|Brown vs. Board
|School segregation is unconstitutional
|Plessy vs. Ferguson
|"Separate but equal"
|Enumeration in constitution
|Lemon vs. Kurtzman
|Aid to church schools must: 1.) Have secular legisilative purpose 2.) Not help or hurt religion 3.) not have excessive government entanglement with religion
|Wisconsin vs. Yoder
|Amish parents can take kids out of school after eigth grade. (Did not harm the public)
|Texas vs. johnson
|Struck down law banning burning flag because that is symbolic speech.
|Schenck vs. US
|Gov can limit speech if it provokes "clear and present danger" of substansive evils.
|African Americans can vote.
|Regents of University of California vs. Bakke
|Forbids rigis racial quota for med. school admissions but does not forbid considering race as a factor when deciding admissions.
|Reynolds vs. Sims
|State Senates apportioned by "one person, one vote"
|Furman vs. Georgia
|Death penalty not cruel and unusual if fairly applied
|Gideon vs. Wainwright
|Right to a lawyer (6th amendment)
|Miranda vs. Arizona
|guidelines for police questioning to protect from self-incriminating statements
|Mapp vs. Ohio
|4th amendment seach/seizures rule must be extended to states as well as federal governments
|Near vs. Minnesota
|1st Amendment protects newspaper from prior restraint (censorship)
|Abington vs. Schempp
|Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in schools violates establishment clause in 1st Amendment
|Engel vs. Vitale
|Officials violated 1st amendment when wrote prayer for New York school children
|Barron vs. Baltimore
|Federal Bill of Rights applies to federal government
|States must follow Bill of Rights
|Gitlow vs. New York
|Freedom of the press and speech- a fundamental protected by due process and 14th amendment from the states and federal government.
|Tinker vs. Des Moines
|Suspension from school because of black arm bands is illegal because speech is more than just words
|Miller vs. California
|Avoids defining obsenity- community standards are used. "No purient interest, or patently offensive, must have SOME value"