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APHG CH 12&13 VOCAB

Wahowski Cy Lakes

QuestionAnswer
Basic Industries Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Base Ratio Ratio between workers empolyed inthe basic sector and thos employed in the nonbasic sector
Bosnywash Large megalopolis in the Northeast region of the United States that connects Boston to Washington DC
Burgess, E.W. Created the concentric zone model in 1923 that views the city as growing outward from the central business district
Business Services Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses
Christaller, Walter Created the central place theory that helps determine the settlement pattern of cities compared to larger urbanized areas
Center City central node of a urban area
Central Business District The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered
Central Place A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
Central Place Theory A theory that explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
City-State A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Clustered Rural Settlement A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement
Complementary Regions Where each individual urban center and its merchants has a sales monopoly
Consumer Services Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
Disamenity Sector A relativelty stable slum area that radiates from the central market to the outermost zone of peripheral squatter settlements that consist of high-density shantytowns
Dispersed Rural Settlement A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
Economic Base A community's collection of basic industries
Enclosure Movement The process of consolidating small land holdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the 18th century
Export Activities When city workers produce goods or services for areas outside the city and result in money flowing into the city
Feminization of Poverty The increasing proportion of the poor who are women.
Formative Era The period between about 4,000 and 2,000 BCE where more complex settlements started to occur and the start of urbanization
Ghettos A neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited by a certain ethnic or religious group
Gravity Model A model that holds the potential use of a service at a particular location is direclty related to the number of poeple in a location and the distance people must travel to a location
Hamlet Small cluster of farmers' houses with perhaps a few basic services such as a gas station, a general store, or a coffee shop
Harris and Ullman Created the multiple-nuclei model in 1945 that says large cities develop by spreading from several nodes of growth.
Hierarch of central places Hexagon shapes of central places with small ceteners surrounding it
Hoyt, Homer Developed the sector model in 1939 that divide the land use of a city into sectors instead of rings
Infrastructure All the facilities that support basic economic activities to such a degree that a city cannot function without them
In Situ Accretion Area in Latin American cities where there are modest housing and transitions to the outer-ring poverty.
Manufacturing City Where factories attracted laborers from rural areas and other countries to tenements constructed to provide housing for factory workers
Megacity Cities that have populations of more than 10 million people
Megalopolis Multiple cities that have grown together form the highest level of the urban hierarchy
Mercantile City City where trade became central to city design
Metropolitan Statistical Area In the US, a central city of at least 50,000 population size
Micropolitan Statistical Area In the US, a central city of between 10,000 - 50,000
Market Area (Hinterland) The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
Nucleated City with one or more clear core areas
Nonbasic industries Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
Physical City A continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities,towns, and suburbs
Public Housing Housing owned by the government; in the US, it is rented to low-income residents and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' income
Personal Services Services that provide for the well-being and personal imporvement of individual consumers
Primate City The largest settlement in a country if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
Primate city rule A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement
Producer Services Services that primarily help people conduct business
Public Services Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Range (of a service) The maximum distance people are willing to ravel to use a service
Rank-Size Rule A pattern of settlements in a country such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
Retail Services Services that provide goods for sale to consumers
Service Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
Settlement A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants
Transportation and Information Services Services that diffuse and distribute services
Threshold The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Wirth, Louis Defined a settlement having 3 characteristics: 1. Large Size 2. High Density 3. Social Heterogeneity
World city World Cities are those that have stock exchanges and major concentration of businesses; first tier (NYC, Tokoyo, London)
Zone in Transition Area that contains light industry and housing for the poor, and serves as a transition zone between the businesses in the central business district and the more purely residential areas in the outer zones
Zone of Maturity The area where there are more middle class homes closer to the city center in a Latin American model
annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the US
Census Tract An area delineated by the US Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published
Concentric Zone Model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Council of Government A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitian area in the US
Density Gradient AS the distance increases from the center of the city, the density of residents and houses decreases
Edge City A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Filtering A process of change in the use of a house, from single family owner occupancy to abandonment
Gentrification A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
Greenbelt A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
Multiple Nuclei Model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Peripheral Model A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road
Redlining A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
Rush Hour The four consecutive 15 minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
Sector Model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiatingout from the CBD
Smart Growth Goal to produce a pattern of controlled development in an urban area
Sprawl Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built up area
Squatter Settlement An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures
Underclass A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics
Urban Renewal Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the propertiies from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new road and utilties
Urbanization An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlement
Urbanized Area In the US, a central city plus its contiguous bulit-up suburbs
Zoning Ordinance A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
Created by: smw11209