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1790 - 1824

APUSH Review #4

TermDescriptionSignificance
Election of 1824 Election between presidential and vice- presidential candidates competing for new political world, and sectional allegiance, as well as, issues. winner = John Quincy Adams, won under less than 1/3 of voter's votes, "Corrupt Bargain"
Andrew Jackson The seventh president hero in the South, brought The Spoils System and the unpopular "Tariff of Abominations"
Corrupt Bargain Bargained entrance into office for support in a campaign Turned personalities and sectional allegiances more important than issues to win support from states to gain presidency, used by Henry Clay and John Q. Adams
John Quincy Adams The sixth president Helped shape the federal union by asserting a central government and promoted internal improvements by using the issues arriving from the Articles of Confederation
Election of 1828 Election between Jackson and Adams Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common Man".
Eaton Affair Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
Henry Clay Speaker of the House of Representatives from Kentucky sought a compromise that would help nullifiers with a tariff to cause
Nullification The right that a state could impose state authority and in effect repeal a To draw the line at any defiance of federal law, stopping short of
John C. Calhoun Powerful leader, Speaker of the House of South Carolina and vice- saw nullification as a way of preserving the Union while preventing
Webster-Hayne Debate Debate between Robert Hayne and Daniel Webster that questioned Sharpened lines between states' rights and the Union
South Carolina Ordinance Advocates of nullification who took the initiative in organization and agitation by holding a special legislative session that called for a election of state convention Adopted a nullification ordinance that repudiated the tariff acts of 1828 and 1832 as unconstitutional and forbade collection of duties in states after Feb. 1, 1833
Force Bill Document that authorized the army to compel compliance with the federal law in South Carolina Eventually being nullified, South Carolina secured a reduction of the tariff
Trail of Tears Journey marked by the cruelty and neglect of soldiers and private contractors by the Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks and Seminoles to Oklahoma 8,000 exiles survived the journey, 4,000 died
Cherokee v. Georgia The case in which the Cherokees sought relief in the Supreme Court John Marshall ruled that the court jurisdiction and that they had an unquestionable right to their lands until they wished to cede from the U.S.
Second Bank of the United States Expansive of a facilitated business that supplied currency and acted as the collecting and dispersing agent for the federal government Government's revenue soared, bank became most powerful leading institution in the country and able to determine the amount of available credit for the Union
Election of 1832 Presidential campaign where for the first time a third party entered the field between Clay, Jackson, and William Wirt Jackson won the election with 219 votes
Roger Taney Nation's attorney general racist against blacks and supported segregation
King Andrew I The name given to Jackson by his opponents for their hostile opinions about Jackson's Maysville veto an abuse of power Began to put together a new coalition of diverse elements
Spoils System "To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
Whigs Name that linked Jackson's opponents to the patriots of the American Revolution Urban banking and commercial interests, planter associates, owners of most of the slaves in the region, the party of economic nationalism and promoted social reforms
Election of 1836 Election where a new two-party system was emerging from Jackson forces Hoping to throw the election into the House of Representatives, resulting in free- for- all reminiscent of 1824; Democratic candidate Van Buren won
Martin Van Buren The eighth president and vice-president to Jackson skilled in the arts of organization and being manipulative; political schemer
Panic of 1837 Financial panic inherited by Van Buren economic failure causing a rise in food prices, wage cuts, and the government losing $9 million
Independent Treasury Act Plan where the government would keep its funds in its own vaults and do business in hard money Van Buren gained western support by backing a more liberal land policy
William Henry Harrison From Ohio, a victor at battle of Tippecanoe, Indiana territory governor, served shortest presidential term Died exactly one month after his inauguration, he had the longest inaugural address
King Cotton Cash crop Britain's prime textile product
Clermont steamboat invented by Robert Fulton fastest boat of its time
Erie Canal canal used for freight delivery brought Midwest agriculture up, provided construction and maintenance jobs
Railroads Provided a faster, reliable, and cheaper way to travel by land One of the most significant contributions to the economy
Cyrus Hall McCormick contributed the mechanical mower- reaper provided the easier way in the 1830s for farmers in western states
Charles Goodyear Invented the vulcanization of rubber made rubber more durable
Samuel F. Morse Inventor of the telegraph provided a better way of communication through Congress
Elias Howe Invented the sewing machine provided a foundation for the clothing industry
The Lowell System Method of paternalistic management for young girls to work in mechanized mills showed humanity can go hand in hand with industrial success
Minstrel shows Working class White men imitating African slaves in musical or play forms became unpopular when African-Americans achieved higher positions in life
Immigration in the 1840s- 1850s Immigrants from places like Ireland and Northwest Europe fled their land from potato famine immigrants originally planned to stay until there was enough money made to go back home and under safe conditions only
Nativism Anti- Immigrant sentiment suppressed immigrants from any political activities
Know Nothings Delegate party that did not vote for foreign-born or Catholic candidates swept Massachusetts legislature and denounced immigrants and Catholics out of public office
Deism It advances the theory that God exists, that He created the universe, but does not intervene in the affairs of humankind Deists generally place their trust in reason and disdain revelation as well as the teachings of a specific church
Unitarianism the belief in the oneness of God, the inheritance of goodness of human kind, andthe primary of individual's reason and conscience over established creeds and Scriptural literalism made people stressed about being eligible for salvation
Universalism a belief as a parallel movement totally opposite of Unitarianism believing that God is too merciful to destroy believed God was too good for damnation
Second Great Awakening a religious revival sparked by the fears that secularism was taking over a new wave of evangelical fervor fed upon the spreading notion of social equality
Charles Grandison Finney The most successful evangelist, a lawyer, and the greatest single exemplar of evangelical Protestantism he subjected the Burned- Over District and the inventor of professional revivalism
Mormons Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints they were responsible for providing the scene for the revivals during the 2nd Great Awakening
Transcendentalism The most intensive expression of such romantic ideals rising above the limits of reason it was a belief made from combinations of New England Protestants and European Philosophers
Emily Dickinson A female poet agoraphobic who wrote 1800 poems and only 2 were published after her death
Nathaniel Hawthorne The supreme writer of the New England group of fictional writers wrote "The Scarlet Letter"
Edgar Allen Poe Writer of restraint, discipline, and unity wrote "Tell- Tale Heart" and "The Raven"
Herman Melville Novelist who had 2 years of schooling wrote "Moby Dick"
Walt Whitman Writer who disdained social conventions and artistic traditions provocative writer of "Leaves to Grass"
Horace Mann From Massachusetts, originally trained to be a lawyer created a bill that created a state board of education and defended school system
Temperance A method of approach, social reforms mobilized against the "alcoholic republic" there were crusades and movements that reduced the consumption of alcohol
Dorothea Dix A middle class woman helped change the status of women, co- wrote the historian called "cult of domesticity"
Lucretia Mott Female Philadelphian Quaker called a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious rights of women and helped change women's status
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Female graduate from Troy Seminar organized the Seneca Falls Convention and the Declaration of Sentiments
Utopian Communities a persuasive climate of reform during the Jacksonian Era Utopians were tired of their environment and surroundings and created new communities with over 100 other communities between the years 1800 and 1900
John Tyler a thin, fragile Virginia slaveholder He was the youngest President to date and was the first Vice President to succeed on the death of a President and practically served all of Harrison’s term.
Manifest Destiny a statement an eastern magazine editor labeled It offered a moral justification for American expansion and joined Americans of diverse ethnic origin and religious persuasion.
Plains Indians Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Sioux horse-borne nomads They discovered the gold in California
New Mexico a former non-state of the United States of America Americans were having a debate over the annexation because of how much territory would be received
California Gold Rush when people from all over the world were trying to make sure they receive some of the gold. It sparked many problems because of the different ideas of who should receive the most gold.
Donner Party George Donner, a prosperous 62 year old farmer, from Illinois had a party that traveled. He led his family and a wagon train of other settlers along the Oregon Trail in 1846 and was forced to turn to cannibalism.
John Fremont a Savannah born premier press agent for California and the Far West generally. earned the nickname “the Pathfinder” and was the 2nd lieutenant in the United States Topographical Corps in 1838.
Annexation of Texas U.S. made Texas a state in 1845 Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
Alamo a battle where there was a Mexican victory The Mexican dictator signed a treaty recognizing Texas’ independence
Election of 1844 Candidates were James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party. Issues were Manifest Destiny, the annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon, tariff reform.
James K. Polk Charlotte-born 11th President of the United States He was he youngest President to date.
Oregon 33rd state to be admitted into the United States They had issues that heated up as expansionists aggressively insisted that Polk abandon previous offers.
Mexican War a war that took place in early June 1846 in which the British government submitted a draft treaty. There were many different battles and the annexation of California took place during this time.
General Zachary Taylor the 12th President of the United States of America On December 4, 1849, he endorsed immediate statehood for California and enjoined Congress to avoid injecting slavery into the issue.
Santa Anna an elderly dictator He was forced out in 1844 and returned in 1846 back in command and was named the President of the Mexican army once again.
General Winfield Scott a democratic general called to the field of command by Polk He had a conquest that added luster to his name.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed on February 2, 1848 after the fall of the capital It forced Mexico to give up all claims to Texas above the Rio Grande and ceded California and New Mexico to the United States.
Southern planters Plantation owners who advocated slavery crops grew and business was made but the people who tended to that farm were still slaves.
Duels The duel constituted the ultimate public expression of personal honor and manly courage Although not confined to the South, dueling was much more common there than in the rest of the young nation, a fact that gave rise to the observation that southerners will be polite until they are angry enough to kill you
Free Persons of Color freed slaves in the northern part of the country. more people started to realize the bad affects of slavery and the former slaves were standing out against it.
American Colonization Society of 1817 a group of people who wanted to remove blacks from the United States Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
William Lloyd Garrison Active in religious reform movements in Massachusetts, began a publishing career in 1828 as editor of an antislavery newspaper. Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising message: immediate emancipation.
The Liberator Paper published by William Lloyd Garrison delivering an uncompromising message: immediate emancipation, the freeing of slaves, with no payment to slaveholders Garrison founded the New England anti-slavery society in 1832, and then helped found the national American Anti-slavery society the following year
Abolition the ending of legal slavery Ends slavery and blacks were free to do their lives instead of their masters
Sojourner Truth real name was Isabella Baumfree, a slave for the first 30 years of her life. Freed from slavery she became Sojourner Truth to spread the truth about slavery. Sojourner Truth made audiences snap to attention. Truth fought for women’s rights, abolition, prison reform, and temperance.
Frederick Douglass Was born into slavery in 1817 and was taught how to read and write by the wife of his owners. a superb speaker who broke with Garrison in 1847 and began his own antislavery newspaper. He named it, the North Star, after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom.
The North Star Name of Garrison’s newspaper, the star that the runaway slaves followed that was believed to lead to freedom they rebelled from slavery and simply wanted to leave, and many tried to run away, some successfully
Harriet Tubman A famous conductor who was born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. Shortly after the passage of the fugitive slave act, Tubman resolved to become a conductor on the underground railroad.
Wilmot Proviso Wilmot Proviso meant that California, as well as the territories of Utah and New Mexico, would be closed to slavery forever. The proviso was attached to a different bill, and was once again passed by the House of Representatives but rejected by the Senate
Popular Sovereignty The right of the residents of a territory to vote for or against slavery it allowed both sides (both North and South) to be satisfied.
Free Soil a party that opposed the extension of slavery into new territories. Free soilers detected a dangerous pattern in such events as the passage of the fugitive slave act and the repeal of the Missouri compromise.
California a state that was fought over by the North and the South to whether it should be a free or slave state was admitted as a free state and a lot of the population moved there.
Compromise of 1850 a series of congressional measures intended to settle the major disagreements between free and slave states. Held off Civil War for about 11 years
Henry Clay Southern from Kentucky and a speaker of the House of Representatives had for sought a compromise that helped nullifiers without a tariff. Composed the Compromise of 1850 and got almost all of them passed.
Millard Fillmore Supporter of the Compromise of 1850 Kept on supporting the compromise
Stephen A. Douglas Senator, unbundled the compromise of 1850 and reintroduced them one at a time. Found the key to pass the entire compromise
Fugitive Slave Act a law enacted as part of the Compromise of 1850, designed to ensure that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage Northerners resisted it by organizing violence committees to send endangered African Americans to safety in Canada.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin a book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852. Stirred strong reactions from northerners and southerners alike. The message was that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
Election of 1852 nominated was General Winfield Scott, and Franklin Pierce Franklin Pierce won the presidency. Runner up was General Winfield Scott.
Franklin Pierce the first “doughface” president. A northern man with southern principles his expansionist goals aroused suspicion and hostility in anti-slavery northerners
Cuba was sought to have been bought from Spain by Pierce, but was declined. Urged military seizure of Cuba should Spain remain intransigent the seeking to annex potential slave territory such as Cuba, seemed to be working for the good of the south
Kansas-Nebraska Crisis a bill was introduced in Congress to organize the area west of Missouri and Iowa as the territories of Kansas and Nebraska the bill was opposed by most Northern Democrats and a majority of the remaining Whigs, but with the support of the Southern-dominated Pierce administration it was passed and signed into law.
Republican Party In the North, many Democrats left the party and were joined by former Whigs and Know-Nothings in the newly created Republican Party. the Republican Power quickly became a major power in national politics
Bleeding Kansas the Northern press reference of the two sides that began arming themselves and then erupted into a full-scale guerilla war for control of the state. Some 200 died in the months of guerilla fighting that followed.
Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, made a two-day speech entitled “The Crime Against Kansas,” in which he not only denounced slavery but also made degrading personal references to aged South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler Sumner was beat about the head and shoulders with a cane, leaving him bloody and unconscious by Congressman Preston Brooks
Sectionalism Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
Election of 1856 a three-way contest that pitted Democrats, Know-Nothings, and Republicans against each other. the Republicans demonstrated surprising strength for a political party only two years old and made clear that they, and not the Know-Nothings, would replace the moribund Whigs as the other major party along with the Democrats.
James Buchanan a veteran of forty years of politics his chief qualification for the nomination was that during the slavery squabbles of the past few years he had been out of the country as American ministers to Great Britain and therefore did not take public positions on the controversial issues.
Dred Scott decision Court ruled that not only did Scott have no standing to sue in federal court, but also that temporary residence in a free state, even for several years, did not make a slave free. Southerners were encouraged to take an extreme position and refuse compromise, while anti-slavery Northerners became more convinced than ever that there was a pro-slavery conspiracy controlling all branches of government.
Lecompton Constitution was stated that should the Lecompton constitution be approved, Kansas would receive a generous grant of federal land, but if not, Kansas would remain a territory Kansas was finally admitted as a free state in 1861
Panic of 1857 caused by several years of over speculation in railroads and lands, faulty banking practices, and an interruption in the flow of European capital into American investments as a result of the Crimean War. The North blamed the Panic on low tariffs, while the south saw the Panic as proof of the superiority of the Southern economy in general and slavery in particular
Abraham Lincoln a Springfield lawyer that was little known outside the state opposed Stephen A. Douglas in a number of debates he lost the debates, but gained major success because it propelled him into the national spotlight
Lincoln-Douglas Debates the 1858 Illinois senatorial campaign that produced a series of debates that got to the heart of the issues that were threatening to divide the nation. Douglas’s answer won him re-election to the Senate but hurt him in the coming presidential campaign and Lincoln benefited from the debate by claiming the national spotlight and strengthening the backbone of the Republican party
John Brown the Pottawatomie Creek murderer, led eighteen followers in seizing the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in a raid. Many southerners became convinced that the entire Northern public approved of Brown’s action and that the only safety for the South lay in a separate Southern confederacy.
Secession South Carolina declared itself out of the Union, then about 2 months later, six more states (Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) had followed suit They then met in Montgomery, Alabama and declared themselves to be the Confederate States of America
Created by: shellenberger