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1790 - 1823

APUSH Review #3

Alexander Hamilton He fought in the Revolutionary War. He also published Federalists papers. He set the standards as the first Secretary of Treasury. He helped sustain early America, particularly during the war of 1812.
John Jay He wrote the Jay’s Treaty. He became the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He established the Supreme Court as a reasoned and honorable institution.
Bill of Rights Passed by Congress on Sept 25, 1789. It is the first 10 amendments of the U.S. Constitution. It set the initial groundwork for the constitution and preserving the basic rights for all Americans.
James Madison He was a member of the original Continental Congress. He served as a secretary of State from 1801-1809 and became the fourth President of the United States. He was a member of the original Continental Congress. He served as a secretary of State from 1801-1809 and became the fourth President of the United States.
National Bank The idea of a government-owned bank to provide for the entire country. Hamilton established the first one, and it was a much-debated subject during the Jacksonian Era.
Protective Tariffs (1792) Tariffs advocated by Hamilton to strengthen internal discoveries, inventions, and overall improvements in America. Commerce between the North and South increased, supplanting the trade across the Atlantic.
Thomas Jefferson He drafted the Declaration of Independence. He became the first Secretary of State and later stated the trend of Secretary of states being elected for President, becoming America’s third President. Enacted polices such as the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the nation and later the unsuccessful Embargo Act.
King Louis XVI The king of France during the American Revolution. Their naval support led to the victory at Yorktown as well as other battles, winning the Revolutionary War for America.
Napoleon He was great dictator and conqueror of France during the early 1800s. President Washington chooses to be neutral towards Europe during Napoleon’s reign to allow free trade with all of Europe.
Edmond Charles Genet He as an ambassador of France for America after the French Revolution. Acted in an un-neutral fashion and provoked an American attack on Spanish Florida and Louisiana. He made it hard for Republicans to support the French Revolution.
Jay’s Treaty The British would evacuate Northwestern posts by 1796 and pay damages for the seizures of American ships and cargoes. For that, they would be given neutral rights and would gain most-favored-nation. It was very unpopular while it settled the issues with the British though it was very one-sided. Still, it was passed in June of 1795.
Battle of Fallen Timbers A battle in the Northwest Territory between the Indians and Canadian militia vs. American troops led by General Wayne. Victory went to the troops. The Treaty gave America rights to the Southern quarter of the Northwest Territory and enclaves at the sites of Vincennes, Detroit, and Chicago.
Treaty of Greenville The treaty struck after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Gave America rights to the Southeastern quarter of the Northwest Territory and enclaves at the sites of Vincennes, Detroit, and Chicago at the cost of $10,000 annuity.
Whiskey Rebellion Rebellion led after the taxation on liquor that angered farmers in the backcountry. General Henry Lee led 13,000 men to disperse the group and did so with very few casualties. The government gained reputation and strength by defending its rule of law and federal authority.
Pinckney’s Treaty He was an U.S minister. He won acceptance of an American boundary at the thirty-first parallel. The treaty was very popular, allowing westerners to use the Mississippi River to transport their crops to the market.
Land Act of 1796 Retained the 640-acre minimum size mandated by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 while doubling the price per acre to $2 and requiring that the full amount is paid within a year. By 1800, the government land offices had sold fewer than 50,000 acres.
Daniel Boone Famous hunter who led settlers to Kentucky. Built a settlement named Boonesborough. Found the Warriors Path, which led to Kentucky.
Wilderness Road A widened Warriors Path, which later became known as Wilderness Road. Opened a road into Kentucky for it to be settled.
Washington’s Farwell address Washington’s farewell address when he stepped down from his two terms as President focused on domestic policy and of unity among Americans in backing their new government. He decried the bad effects of sectionalism and partisanship Gave good advice to the nation and all the presidents alliances.
Election of 1796 First partisan election for presidency. Election was between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. John Adams won, becoming the second President of the United States.
John Adams A member of the continental Congress. He was the first vice president and later became the second President of the United States. He passed the Alien and Sedition acts.
XYZ Affair Efforts to negotiate with the French where three French commisioners were named X, Y, and Z and demanded bribes to continue negotiation talks. Raised a lot of popularity for Federalists.
Talleyrand French Foreign Minister during the XYZ Affair that refused to negotiate with the American negotiators. He caused the XYZ affair.
Department of the Navy The department that controls the American Navy established in 1798. Gave the American Navy more power.
Alien and Sedition Acts Alien Act empowered the president to deport aliens at his discretion. Sedition Act gave misdemeanors to anyone conspiring against the government. Gave the president much power over immigrants.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Jefferson feared prosecution for sedition so he secretly penned a series of resolutions. It was a brilliant formulation of the extreme states rights view regarding the union. It was later used by southerners to support nullification and ultimate secession.
Election of 1800 Jefferson won by a majority of 73 electoral votes to 65. The election fell onto Jefferson because Aaron Burr turned New York to Jefferson by the narrowest of margins. Republic passed a major test when power was peacefully transferred from the conservative federalists to the more liberal Jeffersonian. The first in which Federalist & Democratic Republicans functioned as two national political parties, Adams lost.
Aaron Burr Thomas Jefferson’s first-term vice president. He joined with a group of federalist extremists to plot the secession of New England & New York. Burr’s insurrectionary brashness demonstrated that it was one thing for U.S. to purchase large expenses of western territory but quite another for it to govern them effectively.
John Marshall He was a Chief Justice appointed to the Supreme Court as a fourth choice in the dying days of his term. Marshall greatly magnified the authority of the court. He also inserted the keystone into the arch that supports the tremendous power of the Supreme Court in American life.
Republicans The Democratic-Republican Party evolved from the political factions that opposed Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies in the early 1790s Thomas Jefferson and James Madison organized these factions into a party and helped define its ideology in favor of yeomen farmers, strict construction of the Constitution, and a weaker federal government
Federalists a political party during the First Party System in the United States, from 1792 to 1816 it came to support a strong national government, a loose construction of the United States Constitution based on the "Elastic Clause", and a more mercantile, less agricultural economy. Its early leaders included John Adams and Alexander Hamilton
Marbury V. Madison Supreme Court case that questioned whether or not Marbury should have been served his papers to be a judge Marshall’s decision concluded the questions of who had the final authority to determine the meaning of the constitution.
Judicial Review Established by the Marbury v. Madison case, it asserted that the Supreme Court could declare an act of Congress to be unconstitutional. A reassuring victory for the independence of the judiciary and for the separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government.
Barbary Pirates The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars(1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive.
Louisiana Purchase President Jefferson proceeded boldly to expand the national territory with the landmark Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase
Lewis & Clark Meriwether Lewis was Jefferson’s personal secretary and William Clark was a young army officer. They explored the Northern part of the Louisiana Purchase. From their expedition they brought back a rich harvest of the scientific observations, maps, knowledge of the Indians in the region, and hair-raising wilderness adventure stories.
Election of 1804 Jefferson was reelected with 162 electoral votes to only 14 votes for his federalist opponent. Jefferson’s first administration withered under the blasts of the new storm that broke in Europe.
Burr Conspiracy After the duel, Burr fled New York and joined a group of mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico. Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico Burr was tried for treason, and although Jefferson advocated Burr’s punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr
Impressment The forcible enlistment of sailors. It was a crude form of conscription that the British, among others, had employed for over four centuries. British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Chesapeake Affair on June 22, 1807, the British stopped the American frigate Chesapeake to look for deserters. The Chesapeake’s captain refused, and the British opened fire, causing extensive damage to the ship. The Chesapeake affair was one additional grievance leading toward the War of 1812.
Embargo Act of 1807 Embargo Act of 1807, passed Dec. 22, 1807, by the U.S. Congress in answer to the British orders in council restricting neutral shipping and to Napoleon’s restrictive Continental System. Not unexpectedly, it failed to bring pressure on Britain and France. In 1810 Macon’s Bill No. 2 replaced it.
Election of 1808 Republican James Madison won with 122 electoral votes. Having served Jefferson faithfully as secretary of state for eight years, Madison was rewarded with strong Republican backing in 1808. The electoral totals were not close.
War of 1812 A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Macon’s Bill Number 2 Enacted by Congress during the Napoleonic Wars to motivate Great Britain and France, then at war, to cease illegal seizures of American commercial vessels. Affirmed American trade with all countries but would ban trade with France or Britain This bill replaced the non-intercourse act but failed to stop the seizure of ships.
Tecumseh A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as the Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. An American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 defeated the tribes United the Indians in attacks against America.
Battle of Tippecanoe William Henry Harrison was governor of the Indiana Territory and superintendent of the Northwest Indians. On November 7, 1811, Harrison’s soldiers were attacked and the natives were forced to flee and their village was destroyed William Henry Harrison emerged with a reputation as the hero of Tippecanoe, an image that he would use to his political advantage in later years.
General William Henry Harrison Nominated for president in 1835 as a military hero who the conservation politicians hoped to be able to control, he ran surprisingly well against Van Buren in 1836. Four years later, he defeated Van Buren but caught pneumonia and died on April 4, 1841 Harrison was the first president to die in office.
War Hawks twenty Democratic Republicans who persuaded Congress into supporting a declaration of war against Britain. These young, vocal members from the South and the western U.S. were voted into the House during mid-term congressional elections in 1810. Helped lead America into the war of 1812.
General Winfield Scott In March 1814, Scott was brevetted brigadier general. In July 1814, Scott commanded the First Brigade of the American army in the Niagara campaign, winning the battle of Chippewa decisively Scott earned the nickname of "Old Fuss and Feathers" for his insistence of military appearance and discipline in the U.S. Army, which consisted mostly of volunteers. In his own campaigns, General Scott preferred to use a core of U.S. Army Regulars
Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry hold out during the night against a British attack. He wrote the poem “Star Spangled Banner” about the experience of seeing the U.S. flag still flying above the fort in the morning He wrote the Star Spangled Banner.
Andrew Jackson 7th President of the United States of America President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
Battle of New Orleans January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson's troops at New Orleans. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814 – Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Hartford Convention 1814 – A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
Bank of the United States During Jackson's presidency, this was a struggle between those who wanted to keep the national bank in operation and those who wanted to abolish it. Jackson and states' rights advocates opposed the national bank The bank was defended by Nicholas Biddle and Henry Clay, the National Republicans, the wealthy, and larger merchants, who felt that local banks credit policies were irresponsible and would lead to a depression
John C. Calhoun A representative and a Senator from South Carolina and a Vice President of the United States. Negotiated several key political deals.
Henry Clay A Senator and a representative from Kentucky; born in the district known as “the Slashes” Hanover Country, VA. He tried to become president several times.
Daniel Webster A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a major representative for the North. He helped the North.
Tariff of 1816 This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S. Improved the sale of goods sold in the U.S.
National Road The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and West.
James Monroe Elected president in 1816 over the Federalist Rufus King, and reelected without opposition in 1820. Author of the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe's Presidency was marked by a disappearance of partisan politics, after the politically charged War of 1812, and came to be known as the Era of Good Feelings
Election of 1816 Monroe was the favorite candidate of both former presidents Jefferson and Madison to succeed Madison in office. Secretary of War Crawford opposed Monroe, but Monroe received the Republican nomination. The election campaign of 1816 itself was highly one sided. The early opposition of the Federalists to the War of 1812 had, for all practical purposes, destroyed the party.
Era of Good Feelings A name for President Monroe’s two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist Party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts. Filled with massive improvements for America.
Convention of 1818 Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador. Improved fishing and ended several disputes.
Cession of Florida The treaty provided for the cession of Florida to the United States for payment of $5,000,000. Added another state to the union.
Panic of 1819 A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank. The collapse of the Bank of America caused a surplus of products.
Missouri Compromise Admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of the 36°30” latitude would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states. Set the standards for slave states.
McMulloch vs. Maryland A case decided in 1819 by the U.S. Supreme Court, dealing specifically with the constitutionally of a Congress-chartered corporation, and more generally with the dispersion of power between state and federal governments. The case became the legal cornerstone of subsequent expansions of federal power.
Implied Powers Cause The U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 18) grants to Congress the power to enact laws to carry out the “enumerated powers” (Clauses 1-17), which are specifically assigned to the federal government. The Federalist position regarding “implied powers” became part of the national fabric largely through the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court under John Marshall.
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819), a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision in which Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the charters of business corporations are contracts and are guaranteed under the U.S. Constitution Chief Justice Marshall’s opinion emphasized that the term “contract” referred to transactions involving individual property rights, not to “the political relations between the government and its citizens.”
Gibbons vs. Ogden : In Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824) the Supreme Court defined Congress’s constitutional power to regulate interstate commerce Thus Gibbons became the basis in later years for Congress’s regulation of all interstate communication, from navigation to radio and television.
Transcontinental Treaty John Quincy Adams, secretary of state under President James Monroe, negotiated the treaty with Luis de Onis of Spain. The purchase of Florida for a mere $5 million (paid directly to citizens with claims against the Spanish govt.) assured the treaty’s popularity in the United States, but Adams considered establishing the western boundary his most important diplomatic feat
Monroe Doctrine 1823 – Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
Created by: shellenberger
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