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1763 - 1789

APUSH Review #2

TermDescriptionSignificance
King George III Became King of England in 1760. Oversaw the conquest of an empire in the Seven Year’s War and loss of the American Colonies in War of Independence.
Proclamation of 1763 A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east. It was largely ignored by the colonists and made them question Britain’s care for them.
George Grenville Prime Minister of Britain He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
Sugar Act of 1764 Actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was enforced Created the vice-admiralty courts and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Currency Act of 1764 British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies Attempted to combat the inflation caused by Virginia's decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
Stamp Act Required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Repealed in 1766.
Quartering Act March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies. Part of the Intolerable Acts that were designed to secure England’s jurisdiction over the 13 colonies.
Whigs British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Opposed to the Tories. Name also used for American Patriots.
Tories Another name for the British Conservative Party. Term was also used to describe Loyalist colonists.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept.
Virginia Resolves May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry's speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resistance to the British policies, 5 of which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies followed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end of 1765.
Stamp Act Congress A meeting in October of 1765 of delegates from the American Colonies that discussed and acted upon the recently passed Stamp Act This Congress is viewed by some as the first American action in or as a precursor of the American Revolution.
William Pitt British secretary of state during the French and Indian War He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
Charles Townshend Britain’s Chancellor of the Exchequer Passed a series of revenue measures known as the Townshend Acts.
Townshend Acts Taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint The colonial reaction was outrage and they instituted another movement to stop importing British goods.
John Dickinson Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts An outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies.
Samuel Adams A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. Served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and as Governor of Massachusetts
Boston Massacre On March 5, 1770 a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased anti-British sentiment.
Paul Revere rode through the countryside warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord, although he was detained by the British shortly after setting out, and never completed his portion of the planned ride Thanks to the advance warning, the militias were able to take the British by surprise.
Paxton Boys A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons Massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
Committees of Correspondence A body organized by the local governments of the American colonies for the purposes of coordinating written communication outside of the colony. rallied opposition on common causes and established plans for collective action, and so the network of committees were the beginning of what later became a formal political union among the colonies.
Boston Tea Party Colonials disguised as Indians boarded British ships and threw the tea overboard. It was a reaction to the Tea Act of 1773 that was by Parliament to save the British East India Company from bankruptcy.
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) Acts that included the Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Quartering Act, and the Administration of Justice Acts. The Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) succeeded in uniting the colonies to take action against the Crown.
Continental Congress Assembled on September 15, 1774 in Philadelphia with 55 delegates that represented twelve continental colonies. Rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, and resolved to prepare militias.
Parliament The British legislative body. Passed acts in the mid-eighteenth century to exert control over the colonies.
Loyalist Colonists who did not want to break away from Britain. Made up about one-third of the American population.
Lexington and Concord The colonial militias attempted to block the progress of British troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord and they were again attacked by the colonial militia. This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
Second Continental Congress Met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence Justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
George Washington Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and successful commander in the French and Indian War. He was the first President of the nation after the United States of America won its independence from Britain.
John Adams A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence.
John Burgoyne British general during the American Revolutionary War, infamous for his arrogance, pompous attitude, and vanity. On October 17, 1777 at Saratoga he surrendered his army of 6,000 men.
Battle of Bunker Hill British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies First battle engaged by the Continental Army against British troops.
Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4 It dissolved the colonies' ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
Thomas Jefferson He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
James Madison His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
General William Howe An English General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War. On September 11, he defeated General Washington at the Battle of Brandywine and occupied Philadelphia on September 26th. He again defeated Washington at the Battle of Germantown on October 4, 1777. He then entered winter quarters at Philadelphia.
Lord Cornwallis British General who fought against the Americans in many different battles during the Revolutionary War. Most important one was the Battle of Yorktown and this led to the end of the Revolutionary War.
Trenton (Revolutionary War) On December 26, 1776, Washington’s Army crossed the Delaware and surprised the British at Trenton. Washington’s troops achieved total surprise and defeated the British forces. The American victory was the first of the war, and helped to restore American morale.
Continental Army the unified command structure of the thirteen colonies fighting Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded on November 3, 1783 after the Treaty of Paris.
Hessians German soldiers loyal to King George III who fought for Britain in the Revolutionary War. Most famous for being surprised and defeated at Trenton by American forces under General George Washington, whose army had just crossed the Delaware River in the dead of night on December 25, 1776.
Valley Forge Valley Forge is the story of the six month encampment of the Continental Army of the newly formed United States of America under the command of General George Washington, a few miles away from Pennsylvania. Though no battle was fought here from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778, a struggle against the elements and low morale was overcome on this sacred ground.
Marquis De Lafayette French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
Philadelphia (Revolutionary War) On September 28th, 1777 General Howe and his men occupied Philadelphia. This was done after pushing Washington’s forces back.
Saratoga Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777, at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North. The Battle of Saratoga was the turning point for the French to enter the war.
Nathaniel Greene A major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War Emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer.
Yorktown While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
Peace of Paris, 1783 This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies. granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
Republican Government A political community whose organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. America was founded on these principles.
Articles of Confederation The first governing document of the United States of America The Articles' weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn't keep the country united. The Articles' only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. Abandoned for Constitution.
Robert Morris An American merchant and a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution Morris was known as the Financier of the Revolution, because of his role in securing financial assistance for the American Colonial side in the Revolutionary War
Land Ordinance of 1785 Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S. A major success of the Articles of Confederation.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood. Another success of the Articles of Confederation.
Adam Smith Published “the Wealth of Nations” Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.
Shay’s Rebellion Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting and repossessing the property of those in debt. Occurred in the winter of 1786-7, under the Articles of Confederation. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren’t working effectively.
Constitutional Convention Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as President of the convention. The Convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted by James Madison.
Virginia Plan Proposal for the structure of the United States Government at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state’s representation based on state population.
New Jersey Plan Plan was created in response to the Virginia Plan's call for two houses of Congress, both elected with proportional representation. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in each state had equal representation.
Great Compromise Joined the Virginia Plan, which favored representation based on population, and the New Jersey plan, which featured each state being equal. Also known as the Connecticut Plan, it called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied.
Separation of Powers The powers of the government are divided between three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary. One of the features of the Constitution.
Federalist Papers The collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Federalists People who supported ratification. The leading Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. Published a collection of essays to reassure doubters that there was little reason to fear tyranny by the new government.
Anti- Federalists Did not trust the convention because it had over stepped its authority by rubbing off on the Articles of Confederation. Still were not reassured that the divided branches would prevent abuses.
Ratification The constitution had to be ratified (approved) by at least 9 of the 13 original states in order to be put into effect. Virginia and New York would not ratify until the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution.
Created by: shellenberger