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Exploration - 1763

APUSH Review #1

TermDescriptionSignificance
Christopher Columbus 1451-1506; Columbus was born in Genoa, but he was a trader and explorer who sailed under the Spanish rule. He was given credit for discovering the Americas, when he only made it to the Caribbean. Was actually trying to journey to India by traveling through the Western Hemisphere.
Amerigo Vespucci 1454-1512; a Genoese merchant navigator and sea explorer Explored the eastern coast of South America and believed he had found a new continent, while others thought it was only another part of Asia.
Hernando Cortes 1485-1547; a Spanish conquistador Led Spanish forces to conquer one of the strongest Indian tribes in history: the Aztecs.
Missionaries Spiritual devotees who travel to lands looking to spread their religion These people served as mediators helping the Spanish government.
Samuel de Champlain French navigator and explorer He helped other navigators map out the South American coast
Spanish Armada Fleet of Spanish ships including Hapsburg and King Philip II of Spain Used in the Anglo-Spanish war and Battle of Gravelines; defeated in 1588
Sir Walter Raleigh 1554-1618; an English explorer and friend to Elizabeth I Founded Virginia and the Lost Colony. Also explored Guiana.
Roanoke Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh off the coast of Virginia Known as the "Lost Colony" because the whole colony of 117 people disappeared.
Virginia Company English royal joint stock company established by James I in 1606. Established the Jamestown settlement in 1607 by Chesapeake Bay
Jamestown Named after King James I; permanent English colony Was a disaster until John Smith came and helped the colonists.
Powhatan Very powerful tribe leader of Native Americans Father of Pocahontas; leader of 30 Algonquian tribes.
Captain John Smith 1580-1631; English soldier and sailor Saved Jamestown colony from total destruction. Was captured by Powhatan but was saved by Pocahontas
John Rolfe 1585-1622; One of the early British settlers of America Given credit for being the first to cultivate tobacco in America; married Pocahontas
Pocahontas 1595-1617 Daughter of Powhatan Saved the life of John Smith and supplied Jamestown with food and information about attacks.
Maryland Subsequent colony of Virginia Provided a haven for Catholics
Plymouth 1st colony founded by the Pilgrims of England 1st town to incorporate the English Parliament
Mayflower Compact Document drafted by the Pilgrims while they were still on the Mayflower. The 1st governmental document of the Plymouth colony
William Bradford 1590-1657; leader of the Pilgrims who founded Plymouth Started the Separatist church that was persecuted by the king of England
Massachusetts Bay Colony a Puritan built colony Predecessor of the Massachusetts Bay Province, and eventually Massachusetts the state.
John Winthrop 1587-1649; Governor of Massachusetts Bay in 1629 Led 11 vessels to the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Puritans Group of radical Protestants which developed in England after reformation Founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Pilgrims group of English religious separatists Established Plymouth colony; invented Thanksgiving
Roger Williams 1614-1684; An Anglo-American theologian, and proponent of separation of state and church Co- founded Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson 1591-1643, an unauthorized Puritan preacher of a dissident church discussion group, and pioneer of Rhode Island and the Bronx After being banished as a heretic, led 60 followers to find Rhode Island
Pequot War Massachusetts and Connecticut settlers and allies versus the Pequot The settlers captured and killed most Pequot driving the tribe to near extinction
Restoration(of King Charles 2) 1660; Episode in history where monarchy was restored in England He reneged on his pardon of those officials involved in his father’s death
John Locke an English political philosopher Started the concept of natural rights
Yamasee War The Yamasee Indians versus the white settlers in South Carolina the war took a heavy toll on South Carolina, it took 10 years before it began to be resettled.
New Netherland Originally known as New Amsterdam, it was land in the Northeast settled by the Dutch This land became New York named after the Duke of York
Dutch West India Company Company formed to conduct activities in West Africa and the Western Hemisphere For a while, they experienced a monopoly. Settled on the lands of the former New Netherland company.
Iroquois League Comprised of the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga and Seneca Became a long time ally to the French
Quakers Or Friends, formed by English shoemaker George Fox Became the most despised sect in England because they offended so many segments of society
William Penn one of the most famous Quakers. Founder of Philadelphia Philadelphia was founded for Quakers to live without persecution. He was a true advocate for the freedom of Quakers
James E. Oglethorpe a general and founder of Savannah and Augusta Oglethorpe helped to discover what is present-day Georgia
Indentured servants white servants who, under contract, had to work for a master for a certain amount of years in exchange for food, shelter and even money this showed how bad it was for some settlers and Europeans to get work. Indentured servants were also much cheaper than slaves
Slavery the incarceration of another human being and forcing them to do manual labor Slavery became a problem between the North and the South and was an issue in the Civil war; began in America in 1609
Triangular trade a trade system between the Carribean, West Africa, and Europe which involved the trade of slaves, molasses, rum, horses, and other things Merchants could get rich off of this because American goods were bought at a very high price.
Salem Witch Trials In Salem, Massachusetts, a series of events dealing with the accusation of women practicing witch craft. This showed how a mixture of religion, fear, and jealousy could erupt into a frenzy.
Enlightenment The Age of Reason, advocated rationality and system of ethics It showed the changing mind of the world. The leaders of this movement were trying to lead the world from the irrational tradition.
Benjamin Franklin A diplomat, scientist, writer, printer and political philosopher Invented things such as bifocals, the lightning rod, and the Franklin stove.Served in the Second Continental Congress and was a drafter and signer of the Declaration. Published the Pennsylvania Gazette newspaper. Important in the Revolution era.
Great Awakening It was a time where religious enthusiasm was encouraged. Many religions came about. People, like John Edwards, began to challenge the old religious thinking ways. They developed new ways of thinking which led to new religions.
Jonathan Edwards a Massachusetts minister famous for his sermon Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Really sparked the Great Awakening. He developed a new style of preaching. He was very emotional with his sermons and gained a lot of critics.
George Whitefield a preacher and assistant of John Wesley. was the one who fully ignited the Great Awakening. His revival tour throughout the colonies drew huge crowds with his emotional sermons.
Mercantilism it advocated that a nation should export more than it imported and accumulate bullion to make up the difference. this idea was developed to try and solve the economic problems that the states were having while trying to build up the nations wealth
Navigation Acts were acts passed to put mercantilism into action it caused a stifling of manufacturing and increased resentment against the mother country
Glorious Revolution refers to the throning of William and Mary it was a step in the shift of power from the monarchy to Parliament
Social Contract when a state was formed to guarantee the rights of the members of society This was a stage derived from the natural rights theory
Colonial Assembly represented the people of the towns and counties of the state Government and law in the colonies represented an extension of the English government
King Philip’s War war between the Wampanoag and the English settlers this war was started because the English had taken too much land from the Wampanoag and the Wampanoag’s heavy dependence on the English.
Bacon’s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon and his army rebelled against Jamestown and the government. the rebellion thwarted off Indian attacks. The tribes realized that they stood little chance against the settlers’. But political strength weakened.
Louisiana Government and law in the colonies represented an extension of the English government Most of the territory to the east of the Mississippi was lost to the Kingdom of Great Britain in the French and Indian War
French and Indian War the French and their Indian allies fought against the Americans and the British. This war led to what many believed was the first world war: the Seven Years War. French and British battles usually took place in Europe, but took place on American soil because of battle for land and allies
Seven Years War this war began when the British declared war on the French. the British won and they emerged as the world’s leading colonial empire. Tension began to arise involving America and Britain
The Albany Congress a meeting held in Albany when native leaders, colonial officials, and representatives from Britain came together to discuss the war with France Ben Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson drafted a proposal that called for new layers of government. The delegates at Albany approved it, but it was never ratified. Many others gatherings and congresses modeled themselves after the Albany Congress.
Peace of Paris (1763) or the Treaty of Paris; was a treaty that ended the Seven Years War it helped Britain emerge as the world’s leading colonial empire. France, Spain, and Britain all received and lost land as a result of this
Created by: shellenberger