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Aberant Pub Hea

NYCC Final Exam Prof. David Aberrant Winter Tri 2010

Is water gained or lost on the planet? no, same amt as ever
Surface of Earth covered in water 4/5
Percent of salt water on Earth 97%
Percent of potable water on Earth 1/100 of 1%
According to the Government Accounting Office, how many gal. of water American family uses per day? 700 gal per day
Who sets water treatment standards? EPA
#1: large particles settle out and are removed #1 Sedimentation
#2: smaller particles are removed by adding alum (aluminum sulfate) #2 Flocculation ("flocs" are the smaller particles
#3: most facilities use sand filters, some use smutzdeckes (dirty filters) #3 Filtration
#4: usually cholorine is used #4 Disinfection
4 steps of water treatment Sedimentation, Flocculation, Filtration, Disinfection
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
Action Level when conc. of contaminant exceeded and action is triggered to correct
Pre-treatment of sewage is screened by BAR SCREENS
Primary treatment of sewage is letting it settle in large tanks where what is removed? sludge and grit
Secondary treatement of sludge: sludge is acted on by ___________ organisms, Liquid acted on by ____________organisms. anaerobic (sludge), aerobic (liquid)
the presence in the ambient air of substances in concentrations sufficient to interfere directly or indirectly with one's comfort, safety or health - or with the full use of one's property. Air pollution
Most air pollution comes from motor vehicles
Acid rain components sulfuric + nitric acids (sulfuric is from SO2)
developed by EPA to warn public about polluted air quality air quality index
numbers of air quality index 0-500, with higher worst air
who is most at risk from air pollution elderly and persons with respiratory/cardiac disease
2nd leading cause of lung cancer in US RADON gas
Radon is colorless and odorless. When does it occur? naturally, from breakdown of uranium and radium in soils
Where is radon found soil contaminated with industrial wastes
percentage of American homes with unacceptable levels of radon 20%
when is radon worst in the summer when soil is more porous
You can buy a home radon detection kit. How do you get rid of radon? ventilation!
Carbon monoxide is, like radon, a colorless and odorless gas. It is a by-product of? combustion (ie, kerosene and gas heaters, generators, exhaust)
Leading cause of accidental poisoning deaths in US Carbon Monoxide
How many deaths attributible to CO poisoning per year? 1500
How does CO poison the blood? Inhibits blood capacity to carry oxygen
Low concentration of blood oxygen from CO or elsewhere causes fatigue, nausea, flu-like symptoms, chest pain in chronic heart disease patients
High conc. of CO will cause unconciousness, death
children and unborn babies are more at risk of CO poisoning because of their metabolic rates (death of fetus, not mother, may occur)
Most experts agree that any level of ________found in the human body is unacceptable. lead
There is no normal limit of lead in the body, just lesser degrees of toxicity. Lead is an active and compleat ___________ poison. metabolic
does lead need clinical symptoms to be present? no
sources of lead water as it travels to consumers via lead pipes, paint ('pica'), atmospheric from leaded gas
what group of individuals almost universally exhibits high levels of lead mechanics
plumbers putty, solder, pewter, pipes, glass, toothpaste tubes, cigarette smoke, wines, crayons, crystal - all sources of ___________ (potential sources) lead
Mild symptoms of lead poisoning include fatigue, headaches, clumsiness, confusion, vertigo, tremors, optic disturbances, abdominal distress (sounds like a period migraine to me!)
Severe symptoms of lead poisoning include blindness, sterility, insanity, anemia, kidney failure, brain damage, retardation, convulsions, coma, death (sounds like syphillis)
How many American people per day die from injuries 400
Injuries those 400 people die from MVA's, firearms, poisoning, suffocations, falls, fires, drownings (don't go out of the house!)
Most persons sustain a significant ___________ within their lifetime injuries
most common cause of injury Motor vehicle crashes
what is reliably measured in the US and is therefore a good indicator of violent crime homicides
over the last 3 decades, Homicide in the US has fallen
traditional location for accidents and death workplace
what has risen and fallen, workplace homicide or workplace death homicide risen, death fallen (?)
Healthy people wants to reduce injury and violence - where? MVA, homicide, work, work, work
cost of injury in US in 1995 224$ billion per year
total societal cost of MVA in 1995 150$ billion per year
two most effective means of preventing MVA's safety belt, less driving impaired
highest death rate assoc with motor vehicle: ages? 15-24
second highest death rate assoc with motor vehicle: age? over 75
what percentage of traffic fatalities are alcohol-related 40%
how many estimated episodes of impaired driving per year over 120 million.
During the 1990's, it was found that in 21% of traffic fatalities involving children under 14, alcohol was involved _____% of the time (the driver was drunk). 60%
ages of highest intoxication rates recorded in fatal crashes 21-24 years old
Young drivers who have been arrested for DUI are more than _______x as likely to die in future alcohol-related crashes. 4
Of the 32,436 individuals dead of gunshot in 1997, what percentage were homicide/ 42%
third leading cause of death in 1997 for children 5-14 yrs of age homicide
More than 80% of infant homicides were considered to be fatal child abuse
low income, discrimination, lack of education, lack of employment/job opportunities are all factors of homicide
who are most often victims and perpetrators of homicide men
African Americans are more than ____times as likely as whites to be murdered. five
Workplace deaths in US in 2008 were the __________ever on record. lowest
Out of the 5,488 workplace deaths, what state led the nation? Texas
Texas, California, and Florida were highest for workplace deaths. Lowest? Rhode Island had 5 (Delaware and Vermont had 10 each)
Number one killer of people while on the job highway fatalities
two most dangerous jobs (highway related) truckers and salespeople
most common cause of crash fatality while at work tiredness
most dangerous occupation (with a tv show) Fishing
death rate of fishermen 111.8 deaths per 100,000 workers
four occupations of highest fatality rates in 2007 fishers and related workers, loggers, aircraft pilots and flight engineers, structural iron/steel workers
most common workplace injury strains/sprain
strains and sprains acct for what percentage of workplace injuries requiring time off 41%
how did most strains or sprains occur overexertion or falls - major cause is IMPROPER LIFTING TECHNIQUES
most common workplace illnesses cancer from hazardous substances, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory diseases
Hearing loss and lung cancer caused by ___________ are two other common workplace illnesses asbestos
what percentage of US is affected by mental illness during a given year (what percentage of the population is in chiro school at any given time?) 20%
most common mental illness depression
more than ____ million adults in US suffer from depression 19 (remember this by thinking: "Nineteen? Let's see...that was 20 years ago! How depressing!")
Major depression is the LEADING CAUSE of _________ and is the cause of more than 2/3 of _______________each year. disability, suicides
In 1997, only 23% of adults with major depression received treatment. What is the GOAL OF HEALTHY PEOPLE 2010? up it to 50%
a state of successful mental functioning, resulting in productive activity, fufilling relationships, and the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity. mental health
depression is associated with other medical conditions such as: heart disease, anxiety, eating disorders, cancer, diabetes
An estimated 8 million people have coexisting mental and substance abuse disorders. What is the age group? 15-54 years of age of the 8 million coexisting mental/sub abuse disorders
estimated cost of mental illness over 150 BILLION served!
With treatment, what percentage of those with depression could be helped? 80%
population with highest rates of depression adults and older adults
does depression discriminate? yes, it affects twice as many women as men
___________who are poor, on welfare, less educated, unemployed and are of certain racial or ethnic populations are more likely to suffer depression. women
Depression rates are higher among ___________with coexisting medical conditions. OLDER adults
hip fractures and heart disease are depressing.
Rates of depression for elders in nursing homes 15-25%
OSG Office of the Surgeon General
Current Surgeon General Regina M. Benjamin, MD, MBA
What does office of Surgeon General do? oversees 6500-member Commissioned Corps of the US Public Health Service
_____________office is part of the Office of Public Health and Science in the Office of the Secretary, US Dept of Health and Human Services Surgeon General
"American's will be more likely to change their behavior if they have a meaningful reward -something more than just reaching a certain weight or dress size." What is the real reward? invigorating, energizing, joyous health
what percentage of adults are obese in America 2/3
how many children in three are obese in America 1 in 3
what percentage of American Indian/Alaskan Native adults are obese 70%
the prevalence of obesity in the US more than ______ among adults and more than ______ among children and adolescents between 1980-2008 doubled (adults), tripled (children)
15-34% and 5-17% rates of double and triple for adults and children obesity from 1980-2008
obese teens have a 70% greater risk of becoming obese adult
obesity is more common among non-Hispanic black teenagers (29%)
recommended number of minutes of daily phys ed for elementary and secondary 150 min. per week elementary, 225 minutes per week secondary
Secretary of Dept. of HHS Kathleen Sebelius
How many employees does Kathleen Sebelius oversee as Secretary of HHS? 80,000
The country's highest ranking health official Kathleen Sebelius, M.P.H., Secretary of HHS
Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of HHS, is the former gov. of Kansas
Who is the 14th Commissioner of Health for New York state? Richard Daines, MD
Head of NY state Dept of Health Richard Daines, MD
NY state health budget 49 billion
combination of sciences, skills, and beliefs that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of the entire population public health
public health is typically the domain of the government
WHO stated, "governments have a responsibility for the health of their peoples which can be fulfilled only by the provision of adequate health and social services." WHO
WHO world health org (United Nations)
PAHO Pan-American Health Org
Canadian health org? Dept. of National Health and Welfare
the US fed gov involvement in health care is a function of the DHHS - Dept of Health and Human Services
year DHHS established and its old name 1953 DHEW, renamed in '79
DHHS is headed by a secretary appointed by the President. The secretary is a cabinet position. The function and name of the current Secretary of the DHHS. Kathleen Sebelius, advise the president on matters of health
Branch of the DHHS operating independently but reporting to DHHS via Secretary (Kathleen Sebelius) Public Health Service
Who is head of the Public Health Service? US Surgeon General, Regina Benjamin
The Surgeon General, Regina Benjamin, is the country's chief _____________________. health educator
The Surgeon General, Regina Benjamin, is charged with educating the public as how Americans can improve their health and reduce the risk of illness and injury
NIOSH research safety in the workplace
percentage of public health that takes place at the LOCAL level 80%
Every state has a Health Dept.
Who runs the State health Dept of NY and what is title NYS Commissioner of Health: Richard Daines, MD
State health depts have great political clout because they are responsible for setting minimum standards for med facilities, watchdog for all professionals and agencies in state. Investigates complaints (malpractice and criminal activity of healthcare facilities).
For us, what is the most important thing the State Health Dept of NY will be doing in a few years? Granting licenses to health care professionals - us!
What kind of health dept has a lot of contact with the public? local
health codes, restaurant inspections, workshops, clinics, screenings, bug spraying rabies clinics, prenatal clinics well baby water testing disease registry etc are all : LOCAL health dept
administration supporting underserved in rural areas, Native Americans and Eskimos. HRSA - Health Resources and Services Administration (think of it as "Hrsa'be poor" like Hurts to be poor)
mission is to support and deliver health services to the disadvantaged and underserved, those with limited access to health care, as well as to develop resources, such as qualified health professionals and facilities, to meet those needs. HRSA - Health Resources and Services Admin (Hrsa'be poor/hurts to be poor- don't like it? Make your own cards)
health research arm of the Federal government (3 billion$ budget) NIH - National Institute of Health
mission to improve health of nation by increasing understanding of processes underlying human health, disability and disease. NIH
mission to advance knowledge concerning health effects of interactions between people and the environment, and to develop and improve methods of prevention, detecting, diagnosing and treating disease. NIH
conducts research in its own laboratories, supports non-federal scientists in University, med schools, hospitals and research inst. throughout country and ABROAD NIH
Helps train research investigators and fosters biomedical communication NIH
mission to improve the quality of life for all Americans by preventing unnecessary disease, disability, and premature death and by promoting healthful behaviors. CDC - Center for Disease Control
difference between NIH disease approach and CDC approach? NIH -understand processes of disease (prevent, detect, diagnose) CDC - prevent unnecessary disease, study and prevention of chronic disease and controllable risk factors (disease, morbidity, statistics)
mission includes study and PREVENTION of disease, disability and premature death by promoting healthful behaviors CDC
SPecifically, the mission includes study and PREVENTION of chronic diseases; controllable risk factors such as: poor nutrition, smoking, lack of exercise, high blood pressure, stress. CDC
mission - infectious diseases, and injury or disease assoc with environmental,home, workplace hazards CDC
Which 2 entities spend the most on AIDS research? NIH, CDC
What is most research money spent on in America AIDS/HIV
which org keeps disease, morbidity, death stats and issues weekly reports on unusual mortalities so we can worry about them, too? CDC
Cyclamates are illegal in Canada. What equivalent is illegal in the US? saccharine
The organization who protects and promotes public health and well being of CONSUMERS by identifying, preventing and resolving public health problems. FDA - Food and Drug Admin
CONSUMER watchdog FDA!
org committed to enhancing the development of high quality food, cosmetics, biologics, drugs, medicinal devices, radiologic products, and ensures that high quality is maintained in the MARKETPLACE FDA!
When I say CONSUMER & MARKETPLACE, you say ______! FDA!
Which two entities were formed the year I was born, 1970? EPA, OSHA
the agency which sets ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS for water, air pollution, sewage, solid wastes EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
agency which estab. food standards, especially MEAT and supervises meat processing plants USDA - US Dept. of Agriculture
established in 1970 as part of US labor dept to assure safe and healthful WORKPLACES for Americans OSHA
Created by: hecutler