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Cold War

Nuremberg trials Postwar trial of Nazi leaders for war crimes
United Nations organization dedicated to resolving international conflicts
superpowers United States and the USSR emerged as the 2 superpowers after World War II; powerful countries who influenced events in their parts of the world.
Cold War struggle for global power between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
containment policy of preventing the Soviet Union from expanding its influence
Truman Doctrine policy of providing aid to help countries fight communism
Marshall Plan U.S. grants and loans to fund European recovery after World War II
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) mutual defense alliance of United States, Canada, Iceland, and nine Western European Countries
Joseph McCarthy 1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American government and the military
Hydrogen Bomb (H-Bomb) New nuclear weapon even more destructive than the atomic bomb
arms race Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Sputnik (1957) First man-made satellite put into orbit by the USSR. This caused fear in the US that the Soviets had passed them by in science & technology and the arms race. Democrats blamed the Republican administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower for allowing the United States to fall so far behind the communists. Eisenhower responded by speeding up the U.S. space program (NASA)
Brinkmanship willingness to go to the brink of war to stop communism; (1962) U2 spy planes took photographs of Soviet nuclear missiles being placed in Cuba. JFK authorized a naval blockade around Cuba and demanded the missiles be dismantled and removed. The USSR pledged to remove the missiles - the United States removed missiles from Turkey and promised not to invade Cuba.
baby boom the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
Peace Corps (JFK), volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; program in developing countries to help with projects such as digging wells and building schools.
Fidel Castro Led a communist revolution in Cuba: Kennedy cuts off relations with this nation because of the rise of this leader
Berlin Wall (1961) This was erected in the Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushchev, between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, afterwards Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) was a perilous 13-day standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba,
Neil Armstrong 1st person to walk on the moon; U.S. Apollo 11; July 1969; his famous words - "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin crewmate of Neil Armstrong; second man to walk on the moon,
Ho Chi Minh Communist leader of North Vietnam; 1950s and 60s; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist
Domino Theory A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Vietcong an army of Communist guerrilla forces; member of the communist guerrilla movement in Vietnam that fought the South Vietnamese government forces 1954-75 with the support of the North Vietnamese army and opposed the South Vietnamese and US forces in the Vietnam War.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution a resolution adopted by Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh Trail paths and tunnels used as a supply route by the North Vietnamese
escalation policy of increasing military involvement in Vietnam followed by President Truman
William Westmoreland American commander in South Vietnam
Search and destroy missions a U.S military raid on a south Vietnamese village intended to root out villagers with ties to the Vietcong but often resulting in the destruction of the village and the displacement of its inhabitants
Tet Offensive (1968) was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War; launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army against the forces of South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It failed militarily, but had an enormous psychological impact on the US, showing that the war was far from over, and proving that the government was lying about the war leading to a credibility gap with the American people.
Students for a Democratic Society Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests.
Hippies people who "dropped out" of mainstream society and built a counterculture during the 1960s that emphasized individual freedom
Richard Nixon 1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese); but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
Henry Kissinger The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s).
Vietnamization President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the Vietnam war involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
War Powers Act Passed by Congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial A huge wall of black granite in Washington D.C., that is inscribed with the names of the more than 58,000 Americans who died in Vietnam; designed by Maya Ying Lin
Iron Curtain Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
Warsaw Pact An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Potsdam Conference July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up 4 zones of control.
Created by: MrsRoose
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